2HUMAN SKULL Consists of 22 bones 8 of these bones make up the cranium 14 form the facial skeleton.(also 6 tiny bones in the middle ear)
3PARTS OF THE SKULL CRANIUM The cranium encloses and protect the brain, and its surface provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.There are 8 bones that make up the cranium.Frontal BoneParietal Bones (2)Occipital BoneTemporal Bones (2)Sphenoid BoneEthmoid Bone
7FRONTAL BONEForms the anterior portion of the skull above the eyes, including the forehead, the roof of the nasal cavity and roof of the orbits of the eyes.
8Parietal BonesThe parietal bones (2) form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.
9Occipital Bone The occipital bone joins the parietal bones. It forms the back of the skull and the base of the cranium.A large opening on its lower surface houses nerve fibers from the brain that pass to the spinal cord.
10Temporal BonesA Temporal bones (2) on each side of the skull joins the parietal bone along a squamosal suture.Forms the sides and the base of the cranium.House the internal ear.Notice how far it goes around the face before it meets the zygomatic bone “cheek”
12Sphenoid BonesThe sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the anterior portion of the cranium.Helps form the base of the cranium, the sides of the skull and the floors and sides of the orbits.This bone really has three different views… Laterial—anterior to the temporal boneAnterior- the back of the eye socketsInferior- looks like a butterfly.
13Sphenoid Bones This bone really has three different views… Lateral—anterior to the temporal boneAnterior- the back of the eye socketsInferior- looks like a butterfly.
17Facial SkeletonThe facial skeleton consists of 13 immovable bones and a movable lower jaw bone.These bones provide basic shape of the faceAttachments for muscles that move the jaw and control facial expressions.
21MAXILLARY BONES They form the upper jaw. Together the form the keystone of the face.They form anterior roof of mouth, floors of orbits, and floor of nasal cavity.Contains aleveolar process, maxillary sinuses, palatine process.
22Palatine BonesThe L-shaped palatine bones are located behind the maxillae.The horizontal portions form the posterior section of the hard palate and the floor of the nasal cavity.The perpendicular portions help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.This is easier too see from the bottom view of the skull.
23ZYGOMATIC BONESResponsible for the prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the eyes.Help form the lateral walls and the floors of the orbits.Again notice where it meets the temporal bone…called the Zygomatic Arch or the Zygomatic process of the Temporal
24Lacrimal BonesA thin, scalelike structure located in the medial wall of each orbit between the ethmoid bone and the maxilla.A groove in its anterior portion leads from the orbit to the nasal cavity, providing a pathway for a channel that carries tears from the eye to the nasal cavity.
25NASAL BONES The nasal bones are long, thin, and nearly rectangular. They lie side by side and are fused at the midline, where they form the bridge of the nose.These bones are attachments for the cartilaginous tissue that forms the shape of the nose.
26Vomer boneThe thin, flat vomer bone is located along the midline within the nasal cavity.Posteriorly, it joins the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone Together they form the nasal septon.
27Inferior Nasal CavityThe inferior nasal conchae are fragile, scroll-shaped bones attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.Positioned below the superior and middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone.
28ForamenForamen- An opening through a bone that usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments.You need to be able to identify the following…Mental Foramen, Supraorbital ForamenInfraorbital Foramen, Foramen Magnum
40For Your Information Zygomatic process (Aka zygomatic arch External acoustic canal
41Ear Bones Malleus (2)- means hammer- shape of the bone Incus(2)- means anvil- shape of boneStapes (2) means stirrup- shape of the boneDon’t worry about identification of these on the skull…you cannot see them. Just recognize the names as bones of the inner ear.
42What have we learned so far?? Coronal SutureFrontal BoneSphenoid BoneParietal BoneEthmoid BoneTemporal BoneLacrimal BonesLamboidsutureSquamous sutureNasal BoneOccipital boneZygomatic BoneMaxillaExternal Auditory CanalMastoid ProcessMandibleStyloid ProcessMandibularcondyleMental ForamenCoronoidprocess42