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Organic Molecules of Life. Organic molecules : are compounds created by living organisms are compounds created by living organisms contain the elements.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Molecules of Life. Organic molecules : are compounds created by living organisms are compounds created by living organisms contain the elements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Molecules of Life

2 Organic molecules : are compounds created by living organisms are compounds created by living organisms contain the elements carbon and hydrogen contain the elements carbon and hydrogen

3 Carbon atoms: need four electrons to fill their outer electron shell need four electrons to fill their outer electron shell Must form four bonds with other elements. Must form four bonds with other elements. These are covalent bonds. These are covalent bonds. Most often bond with Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and other Carbon atoms Most often bond with Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and other Carbon atoms 6 P 6 N

4 These can include: Single bonds Single bonds (one electron shared) Double bonds Double bonds (two electrons shared) Or triple bonds Or triple bonds (three electrons shared)

5 Carbon Atoms: These chains can be: Can bond with other atoms of carbon to form long chains Straight Branched Rings

6 Isomers Molecules with the same formula Molecules with the same formula Atoms are arranged differently Atoms are arranged differently Carbons are branched in various ways Carbons are branched in various ways

7 Functional groups: Are special groups of atoms that stay together and act as a single unit Are special groups of atoms that stay together and act as a single unit can bond with the carbon chains can bond with the carbon chains determine how the entire molecule will react. determine how the entire molecule will react.

8 The functional groups you need to know are:

9 Hydroxyl Group one oxygen and one hydrogen usually written as -OH Oxygen Hydrogen

10 Carboxyl Group one carbon with a double bond to an oxygen AND a single bond to a hydroxyl group one carbon with a double bond to an oxygen AND a single bond to a hydroxyl group usually written as COOH or usually written as COOH or O=C–OH O=C–OH Creates an organic acid (carboxylic) Creates an organic acid (carboxylic) Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen

11 Amino Group one nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen one nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen usually written as NH 2 or usually written as NH 2 or H–N–H H–N–H Nitrogen Hydrogen

12 Phosphate Group: One phosphorus bonded to two hydroxyl groups, and two other oxygens (one has a double bond) One phosphorus bonded to two hydroxyl groups, and two other oxygens (one has a double bond) Usually written as –P or Usually written as –P or OH OH O P O O P O OH OH Phosphorus

13 Biological molecules can be made up of thousands of atoms

14 These large molecules are built from basic units called monomers. One monomer

15 The monomers are linked together to form the large molecules called polymers. Polymer – chain of repeating monomer units

16 Making and Breaking Polymer Bonds When two monomers are put together to form larger molecules, a water molecule is created. Monomers Polymer

17 This process is called: (Dehydration means to lose water Synthesis means to build or put things together) Dehydration Synthesis.

18 When polymers are broken apart, it is done by adding a water molecule.

19 This is called Hydrolysis (hydro- for water, -lysis for breaking apart)

20 Types of Organic Molecules There are four categories of organic molecules in organisms: CarbohydratesLipidsProteins Nucleic acids

21 Carbohydrates

22 What are Carbohydrates? Organic compounds Organic compounds Commonly called starches and sugars Commonly called starches and sugars Used as: Used as: An energy source An energy source Energy storage Energy storage Cellular structures Cellular structures

23 Chemical Composition Contains only three elements: Contains only three elements: Carbon Carbon Hydrogen Hydrogen Oxygen Oxygen Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1 (just like water) Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1 (just like water) Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 Basic Unit is called a saccharide Basic Unit is called a saccharide

24 Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Monosaccharides Simple, single (mono-) sugar unit Simple, single (mono-) sugar unit Building block of all other carbohydrates Building block of all other carbohydrates Name usually ends in –ose Name usually ends in –ose Used as energy source Used as energy source

25 Examples of Monosaccharides Glucose – blood sugar Glucose – blood sugar Fructose – fruit sugar Fructose – fruit sugar Galactose – one monomer in lactose (milk) Galactose – one monomer in lactose (milk) Isomers of CHO Isomers of C 6 H 12 O 6

26 Examples of Monosaccharides Ribose and Deoxyribose Ribose and Deoxyribose 5 - Carbon sugars in RNA and DNA 5 - Carbon sugars in RNA and DNA

27 Types of Carbohydrates Disaccharides Disaccharides Double sugar units synthesized from monosaccharides Double sugar units synthesized from monosaccharides All are isomers of CHO All are isomers of C 12 H 22 O 11 Formed by dehydration synthesis (requires enzymes) Formed by dehydration synthesis (requires enzymes)

28 Examples of Disaccharides Sucrose – table sugar Sucrose – table sugar Glucose + Fructose Glucose + Fructose Maltose – seed sugar Maltose – seed sugar Glucose + Glucose Glucose + Glucose Lactose – milk sugar Lactose – milk sugar Glucose + Galactose Glucose + Galactose

29 Types of Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Large, complex chains of many (poly-) repeating sugar units Large, complex chains of many (poly-) repeating sugar units Polymers Polymers Bonded together by dehydration synthesis Bonded together by dehydration synthesis Used by living things as a sugar storage or for structures Used by living things as a sugar storage or for structures

30 Examples of Polysaccharides Amylose – plant starch Amylose – plant starch Used as sugar storage in seeds, roots, stems Used as sugar storage in seeds, roots, stems Glycogen – animal starch Glycogen – animal starch Used as sugar storage by humans in the liver Used as sugar storage by humans in the liver Cellulose Cellulose Very tough polymer Very tough polymer Used as a main component of cell walls Used as a main component of cell walls Indigestible by humans Indigestible by humans Chitin Chitin Very tough polymer Very tough polymer Used in exoskeletons (crab shells, insects) Used in exoskeletons (crab shells, insects)

31 Digesting Polysaccharides Broken apart by hydrolysis with the help of enzymes Broken apart by hydrolysis with the help of enzymes

32 Lipids

33 What are Lipids? Three elements: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Three elements: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Ratio of H:O much greater than 2:1 Ratio of H:O much greater than 2:1 Example: Oleic acid CHO Example: Oleic acid C 18 H 34 O 3 Insoluble in water Insoluble in water Greasy, slippery texture Greasy, slippery texture Three main groups: Three main groups: Fats oils and waxes Fats oils and waxes At room temperature: Liquid – oils/Solid – fats and waxes At room temperature: Liquid – oils/Solid – fats and waxes Phospholipids Phospholipids Steroids Steroids

34 What are the Functions of Lipids? Fats, Oils and Waxes: Long term energy storage More than twice as much energy stored than carbohydrates More than twice as much energy stored than carbohydrates fats- 9 Calories/gram; carbohydrates- 4 Cal/g fats- 9 Calories/gram; carbohydrates- 4 Cal/g In plants: stored in and around seeds In plants: stored in and around seeds Peanut oil, corn oil, olive oil Peanut oil, corn oil, olive oil In animals: stored under the skin and around internal organs In animals: stored under the skin and around internal organs Used as insulation and shock absorber Used as insulation and shock absorber

35 What are the Functions of Lipids? Phospholipids Phospholipids Structural Part of Cell membranes Structural Part of Cell membranes Steroids Steroids Part of cell membranes, transport of lipids, regulate body functions (hormones) Part of cell membranes, transport of lipids, regulate body functions (hormones)

36 Chemical Composition Fats Oils, Waxes One or more fatty acids attached to a Glycerol backbone One or more fatty acids attached to a Glycerol backbone Fatty Acids: Long chains of carbon with a carboxyl group at the end Fatty Acids: Long chains of carbon with a carboxyl group at the end Glycerol: CHO Glycerol: C 3 H 8 O 3 Formed by dehydration synthesis Formed by dehydration synthesis NOT a polymer NOT a polymer Glycerol Fatty Acid Lipid Glycerol

37 Formation of a Triglyceride:

38 Types of Fats Saturated Saturated All carbons of the fatty acid have single bonds All carbons of the fatty acid have single bonds All carbons are “filled” with hydrogen All carbons are “filled” with hydrogen Solid at room temperature Solid at room temperature Associated with heart disease risk Associated with heart disease risk Examples: Bacon grease, butter Examples: Bacon grease, butter

39 Types of Fats Unsaturated Unsaturated Carbons share one or more double or triple bonds with other carbons Carbons share one or more double or triple bonds with other carbons Monounsaturated – only one double bond Monounsaturated – only one double bond Polyunsaturated – many double or triple bonds Polyunsaturated – many double or triple bonds Liquid at room temperature Liquid at room temperature Examples: corn oil, olive oil Examples: corn oil, olive oil

40 Phospholipids Phosphate group replaces fatty acid on one end Phosphate group replaces fatty acid on one end Used as the main component of cellular membranes Used as the main component of cellular membranes

41

42 Steroids: Four Fused Rings lipids with four fused hydrocarbon rings Includes: Cholesterol - found in animal cell membranes Testosterone, estrogen, progesterone - sex hormones Vitamin D An anabolic steroid is a synthetic testosterone.

43 Proteins

44 Protein Functions Structural parts Structural parts cell membrane, muscles, hair, nails, pigments cell membrane, muscles, hair, nails, pigments Regulators Regulators Hormones, enzymes Hormones, enzymes Carriers Carriers Transport materials in, out and around cells Transport materials in, out and around cells Identification Identification Allow cells to recognize each other Allow cells to recognize each other Immune system antibodies Immune system antibodies

45 Composition of Proteins Elements: Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and NITROGEN carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and NITROGEN Very large, complex Very large, complex Hemoglobin: C 3032 H 4816 O 872 N 780 S 8 Fe 4 Hemoglobin: C 3032 H 4816 O 872 N 780 S 8 Fe 4 Monomers (building blocks) are amino acids Monomers (building blocks) are amino acids 20 common amino acids 20 common amino acids 9 are essential 11 are non essential 9 are essential 11 are non essential

46 Amino Acids The R group is different for each of the twenty amino acids

47 Peptide Bonds Chains of amino acids are called peptides Amino acids are joined by dehydration synthesis This occurs between the carboxyl end of one amino acid and the amino end of another amino acid. The resulting bond is called a Peptide bond

48 Primary Structure The sequence of amino acids in a protein is called the Primary Structure The sequence of amino acids in a protein is called the Primary Structure The sequence is unique for each protein and is determined by the DNA The sequence is unique for each protein and is determined by the DNA

49 Secondary Structure Hydrogen bonds are formed between the chains of amino acids causing different shapes. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the chains of amino acids causing different shapes.

50 Secondary Structure Two shapes are common – a helix and a sheet. Sheet and Helix

51 Tertiary Structure The 3-D arrangement of the molecule caused by weak bonds between the R groups The 3-D arrangement of the molecule caused by weak bonds between the R groups The most important structure format The most important structure format Determines the function of the protein Determines the function of the protein

52 Quaternary Structure More than one protein molecule can combine to create a macromolecule More than one protein molecule can combine to create a macromolecule This is the quaternary structure of the protein This is the quaternary structure of the protein This creates either globular (hemoglobin) or fibrous (collagen) proteins This creates either globular (hemoglobin) or fibrous (collagen) proteins

53 Nucleic Acids

54 Nucleic Acids are: The largest molecules in living things The largest molecules in living things The DNA of humans has about 6 billion monomers The DNA of humans has about 6 billion monomers Some reptiles have 20 times more units Some reptiles have 20 times more units The largest DNA known is a flower with 5 trillion units The largest DNA known is a flower with 5 trillion units

55 The two most important Nucleic Acids: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid)

56 Functions of Nucleic Acids DNA DNA make up chromosomes and their genes that carry hereditary information make up chromosomes and their genes that carry hereditary information found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts (plants) found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts (plants) RNA RNA functions in the synthesis of proteins for the cell functions in the synthesis of proteins for the cell found in cell parts: nucleoli, ribosomes, and throughout the cytoplasm found in cell parts: nucleoli, ribosomes, and throughout the cytoplasm

57 General Structure of Nucleic Acids Polymers, with many repeating units called nucleotides Polymers, with many repeating units called nucleotides Nucleotides have three subunits: Nucleotides have three subunits: a five carbon sugar a five carbon sugar a phosphate group a phosphate group a nitrogenous base a nitrogenous base (a base that contains nitrogen) (a base that contains nitrogen) Phosphate group Five Carbon Sugar Nitrogenous Base

58 Structure of DNA The sugar backbone is deoxyribose The sugar backbone is deoxyribose

59 Structure of DNA The base can be one of four: Adenine Adenine Guanine Guanine Thymine Thymine Cytosine Cytosine

60 Structure of DNA The bases pair up – A (adenine) always pairs with T (thymine) A (adenine) always pairs with T (thymine) G (guanine) always pairs with C (cytosine) G (guanine) always pairs with C (cytosine)

61 Structure of DNA

62 Two polymer chains of nucleotides are connected by weak hydrogen bonds and are twisted into a double helix Two polymer chains of nucleotides are connected by weak hydrogen bonds and are twisted into a double helix

63 Structure of DNA Sequence of nitrogenous bases codes for specific amino acids Sequence of nitrogenous bases codes for specific amino acids Amino acid sequence determines the protein made in the cell and the cellular activity Amino acid sequence determines the protein made in the cell and the cellular activity

64 Relationship Between Proteins and Nucleic Acids

65 Structure of RNA Ribose is its sugar backbone Ribose is its sugar backbone

66 Structure of RNA The base can be one of four: Adenine Adenine Guanine Guanine Cytosine Cytosine Uracil Uracil Thymine is replaced by Uracil Thymine is replaced by Uracil

67 Structure of RNA Only a single polymer chain is created in RNA, but strands of RNA have complex, folded structures that compliment their function. Only a single polymer chain is created in RNA, but strands of RNA have complex, folded structures that compliment their function.

68 Enzymes

69 What are Enzymes? Large, Complex Proteins Large, Complex Proteins Function as Organic Catalysts Function as Organic Catalysts Allow reactions to occur at lower temperatures ( 37° C) Allow reactions to occur at lower temperatures ( 37° C) Used temporarily Used temporarily Unchanged by the reaction Unchanged by the reaction Can be reused Can be reused Specific to one reaction Specific to one reaction

70 What are Enzymes? Bind to reactants called substrates Bind to reactants called substrates Enzyme names usually end in –ase and can be named for their substrate: Enzyme names usually end in –ase and can be named for their substrate: Protease – proteins Protease – proteins Lipase – lipids Lipase – lipids Maltase – maltose Maltase – maltose ATPase – ATP ATPase – ATP Acetylcholinesterase - acetylcholine Acetylcholinesterase - acetylcholine

71 How Do Enzymes Work? Reduces energy needed to begin reaction (Activation energy) Reduces energy needed to begin reaction (Activation energy) Energy Time Energy Time Without catalystWith catalyst Activation Energy

72 How Do Enzymes Work? Lock and Key Model Lock and Key Model Enzyme Substrate Active Site Products Substrate attaches to enzyme at active site Enzyme Substrate Complex Formed Reaction takes place and products are released

73 How Do Enzymes Work? Induced Fit Model Induced Fit Model Substrate attaches to active site Enzyme changes shape to match substrate – Stressed molecule may help to weaken bonds Enzyme resumes original shape after product formed Enzyme Substrate Enzyme substrate complex formed Product

74 How Do Enzymes Work? Coenzymes sometimes needed Coenzymes sometimes needed Non proteins – minerals, vitamins Non proteins – minerals, vitamins Smaller molecules Smaller molecules Part of the enzyme structure or work along side the enzyme Part of the enzyme structure or work along side the enzyme Enzyme and substrate do not match Coenzyme fills in needed shape Coenzyme

75 Denaturation: If the shape changes, the enzyme cannot function properly

76 Factors Affecting Enzymes Temperature Temperature Enzyme activity increases with temperature Enzyme activity increases with temperature Optimum temperature for each enzyme Optimum temperature for each enzyme Higher temperatures denature (change the shape) of the enzyme’s active site Higher temperatures denature (change the shape) of the enzyme’s active site Rate of reaction decreases quickly after optimum temperature Rate of reaction decreases quickly after optimum temperature Optimum temperature

77 Factors Affecting Enzymes pH pH Enzymes are pH dependent Enzymes are pH dependent Some work at low pH (acid) Some at high pH (basic) Some work at low pH (acid) Some at high pH (basic) Surrounding solutions will activate or deactivate enzyme by changing the shape of the active site Surrounding solutions will activate or deactivate enzyme by changing the shape of the active site Extremely high or low pH values generally result in complete loss of activity for most enzymes Extremely high or low pH values generally result in complete loss of activity for most enzymes pH for Optimum Activity Enzyme pH Optimum Lipase (pancreas) 8.0 Lipase (stomach) Lipase (castor oil) 4.7 Pepsin Trypsin Urease7.0 Invertase4.5 Maltase Amylase (pancreas) Amylase (malt) Catalase7.0

78 Factors Affecting Enzymes Concentration: Concentration: Increasing amount of enzyme: Increasing amount of enzyme: rate increases then levels off rate increases then levels off substrate levels fall and reduces efficiency substrate levels fall and reduces efficiency Increasing amount of substrate: Increasing amount of substrate: rate increases then levels off rate increases then levels off enzyme is saturated and no additional reactions can occur enzyme is saturated and no additional reactions can occur Presence of Inhibitors Presence of Inhibitors Bind to enzyme and change shape or compete with the substrate Bind to enzyme and change shape or compete with the substrate


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