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The Chemical Basis of Life. Organic Compounds Compounds containing carbon Compounds containing carbon (Actually contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen)

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Presentation on theme: "The Chemical Basis of Life. Organic Compounds Compounds containing carbon Compounds containing carbon (Actually contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Chemical Basis of Life

2 Organic Compounds Compounds containing carbon Compounds containing carbon (Actually contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) (Actually contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) Compounds that come from living things Compounds that come from living things

3 Q1)Give two examples of organic compounds? Sugar, Starch Sugar, Starch

4 Inorganic compounds Dont contain carbon Dont contain carbon Dont come from living things Dont come from living things Exceptions: Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide Exceptions: Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide

5 Q2) Give 2 examples of inorganic molecules Water, Salt Water, Salt

6 Unique bonding properties of carbon Carbon has four electrons in its outer shell Carbon has four electrons in its outer shell Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds Carbon can form complex molecules because of its ability to form 4 bonds at the same time Carbon can form complex molecules because of its ability to form 4 bonds at the same time

7 Chemistry of carbon Carbon can form Carbon can form Single covalent bonds Single covalent bonds Shares 1 electron with one other atom.Shares 1 electron with one other atom. Double covalent bonds Double covalent bonds Shares 2 electrons with one other atomShares 2 electrons with one other atom Triple covalent bonds (rare) Triple covalent bonds (rare) Shares 3 electrons with one other atom (See examples of these bonds on the bottom of page 49)Shares 3 electrons with one other atom (See examples of these bonds on the bottom of page 49)

8 Functional groups Common parts used molecule building Common parts used molecule building Hydroxyl Hydroxyl -OH -OH Carboxyl Carboxyl -COOH-COOH Amino Amino -NH 2-NH 2

9 Monomers Simple building block molecules Simple building block molecules

10 Polymers Two or more monomers covalently bonded together. Two or more monomers covalently bonded together. Can be two or two thousand… Can be two or two thousand… Allow very large molecules to built with only a few basic parts. Allow very large molecules to built with only a few basic parts.

11 Two chemical reactions used Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration Synthesis Covalent bond is formed by the removal of water. Covalent bond is formed by the removal of water. Two monomers become joined together. Two monomers become joined together.

12 Dehydration Synthesis Reaction

13 Two Chemical Reactions Used Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Separation of two monomers by adding water and breaking the covalent bond Separation of two monomers by adding water and breaking the covalent bond

14 Hydrolysis Reaction

15 Carbohydrates Made from glucose molecules (sugars) Made from glucose molecules (sugars) Carbohydrates are used by living things as a source of energy. Carbohydrates are used by living things as a source of energy.

16 Monosaccharides Simple sugars Simple sugars Mono = one Saccharide = sugar Mono = one Saccharide = sugar Have the formula C 6 H 12 O 6 Have the formula C 6 H 12 O 6 Form rings when in water Form rings when in water

17 Some Sample Monosaccharides

18 Q2) Where do people get glucose molecules? Plants produce glucose during photosynthesis and animals get glucose by eating plants. Plants produce glucose during photosynthesis and animals get glucose by eating plants.

19 Disaccharides Di = Two Saccharide = sugar Di = Two Saccharide = sugar

20 Polysaccharides Two or more monosaccharides joined together by a covalent bond. Two or more monosaccharides joined together by a covalent bond. The bond forms by a Dehydration Synthesis Reaction. The bond forms by a Dehydration Synthesis Reaction.

21 Four types of polysaccharides Made of Glucose

22 Starch Energy storage in plants Energy storage in plants

23 Glycogen Energy storage in plant seeds and short term energy storage in animals (1 day) Energy storage in plant seeds and short term energy storage in animals (1 day)

24 Cellulose Structural support in plants Structural support in plants

25 Starch Vs. Cellulose STARCH STARCHCELLULOSE

26 Chitin Used in insect exoskeletons for structural support Used in insect exoskeletons for structural support Harvested and used as surgical stitches Harvested and used as surgical stitches

27 Lipids Fats Fats Oils Oils Waxes Waxes Do not dissolve in water!!! Do not dissolve in water!!!

28 Molecules made from lipids Fats Fats Energy storage in animals and plant seeds Energy storage in animals and plant seeds A gram of fat stores more than twice as much energy as a gram of a polysaccharide.A gram of fat stores more than twice as much energy as a gram of a polysaccharide.

29 Phospholipids Used in cell membranes Used in cell membranes Separations between inside and outside of cell Separations between inside and outside of cell

30 Waxes Water proof molecules, many uses Water proof molecules, many uses Example: Waxy coating on leaves prevents water loss Example: Waxy coating on leaves prevents water loss

31 Chemistry of Fats Chemistry of Fats Glycerol Glycerol 3 fatty acids 3 fatty acids Chains of carbons with a carboxyl (acid) group at one end of each fatty acid Chains of carbons with a carboxyl (acid) group at one end of each fatty acid

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33 Two major types of fats Saturated fats – single bonds between carbon atoms Saturated fats – single bonds between carbon atoms Unsaturated fats – double bonds between carbon atoms Unsaturated fats – double bonds between carbon atoms

34 Q3) Which type of fat is unhealthy? Saturated fats Saturated fats

35 What is the difference between fats and oils? Fats are solid at room temperature and oils are liquids at room temperature. Fats are solid at room temperature and oils are liquids at room temperature.

36 Proteins The molecules that do the work inside of the cell. The molecules that do the work inside of the cell. Proteins are responsible for most of what happens inside of the cell. Proteins are responsible for most of what happens inside of the cell.

37 Functions of a protein Movement Movement Structural support Structural support Storage Storage Defense Defense Regulation of chemical processes Regulation of chemical processes

38 What are two examples of things made of protein? Enzymes (thousands of different types) Enzymes (thousands of different types) Speed up chemical reactions Speed up chemical reactions Hemoglobin Hemoglobin Used in red blood cells to transport oxygen Used in red blood cells to transport oxygen

39 Structure of protein Amino acid Amino acid The monomer of proteins The monomer of proteins There are 20 different amino acids There are 20 different amino acids They can make billions of different proteins They can make billions of different proteins

40 Peptide Bond Holds these monomers together. Holds these monomers together. Formed by a dehydration synthesis reaction Formed by a dehydration synthesis reaction

41 Polypeptides Many amino acids bonded together making a long chain Many amino acids bonded together making a long chain

42 How proteins are formed Proteins are complexly folded polypeptide chains Proteins are complexly folded polypeptide chains There are four levels of protein structure There are four levels of protein structure Each level of folding makes the protein more complex. Each level of folding makes the protein more complex.

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44 One change can be devastating

45 Stop for today.

46 The function of enzymes Enzymes are Protein Catalysts Enzymes are Protein Catalysts Increase the speed of chemical reactions without being used up themselves. Increase the speed of chemical reactions without being used up themselves. NOT CHANGED BY REACTION NOT CHANGED BY REACTION

47 Substrates The molecule that binds to the enzyme The molecule that binds to the enzyme These are the ones changed in the reaction These are the ones changed in the reaction

48 Enzyme-substrate complex Enzyme-substrate complex Active site Active site The space where the substrate fits The space where the substrate fits Lock and key Lock and key Each enzyme is specific for one substrate!! Each enzyme is specific for one substrate!!

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50 Activation Energy Energy needed to get a reaction started. Energy needed to get a reaction started. Bonds are weakened by activation energy New bonds form to make products

51 Activation Energy Enzymes lower a reactions activation energy Enzymes lower a reactions activation energy A lower activation energy makes a reaction happen faster A lower activation energy makes a reaction happen faster

52 Enzymes Catalysts in the body are enzymes Catalysts in the body are enzymes Enzymes work best at a certain temperature and pH Enzymes work best at a certain temperature and pH

53 If the temperature or pH changes, the enzyme may not function. If the bonds that hold the enzymes shape are changed, the enzyme will come apart. If the bonds that hold the enzymes shape are changed, the enzyme will come apart. If this happens, the enzyme will denature. If this happens, the enzyme will denature.

54 Nucleic Acids Polymers which are used to store genetic information Polymers which are used to store genetic information

55 Nucleotide Monomer of nucleic acids Monomer of nucleic acids Made from Made from 1 sugar1 sugar 1 base1 base 1 phosphate1 phosphate

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57 Two types of nucleic acids and their uses: Deoxyribonucleic Acid Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA DNA Stores genetic information and passes it on to the next generation Stores genetic information and passes it on to the next generation Ribonucleic Acid Ribonucleic Acid RNA RNA Takes information and uses it to make proteins Takes information and uses it to make proteins

58 The information is stored in bases The differences in the nucleotides is in the bases. The differences in the nucleotides is in the bases. The order of these bases makes up the genetic CODE. The order of these bases makes up the genetic CODE.

59 DNA Bases There are four bases used in DNA Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) Adenine (A), Guanine (G) There are four bases used in DNA Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) Adenine (A), Guanine (G)

60 RNA Bases There are four bases used in RNA There are four bases used in RNA Cytosine (C), Uracil (U) Cytosine (C), Uracil (U) Adenine (A), Guanine (G) Adenine (A), Guanine (G) Thymine is replaced by Uracil in RNA


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