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Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

2 Is it made of carbohydrates?


4  Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.  A carbohydrate with 6 carbon atoms would have… ______ hydrogen atoms and ______ oxygen atoms  Source of ENERGY  Structural components of cells

5  Monomer of carbohydrate (simple sugar)  Most have 6 carbon atoms  Most common: 1) Glucose (main source of energy) 2) Fructose (found in fruits) 3) Galactose (found in milk)

6  Glucose, fructose, and galactose have the same chemical formula. C 6 H 12 O 6  Same formula but different structural forms.

7  Disaccharide: two monosaccharides bond to form a double sugar.  Example: sucrose  Polysaccharide: complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.

8  Glycogen: animals store glucose in the form of the large, complex molecule – glycogen  Starch: plants store glucose molecules in the form of starch.  Cellulose: large polysaccharide made by plants, which provide strength and rigidity to plant cells.


10  White bread is a simple carbohydrate (little nutritional value, digested more quickly, converted to fat more quickly)  Whole grain bread is a complex carbohydrate (high in fiber, vitamins and minerals, provide more energy, digested slowly)


12  Large organic molecules  Nonpolar – do NOT dissolve in water  Include phospholipids, triglycerides, waxes, steroids  Higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen to oxygen than carbohydrates…. More C-H bonds  Store more energy per gram than most other organic compounds

13  Hydrocarbon End C-H Nonpolar Hydrophobic  Carboxyl End -COOH Polar Hydrophilic

14 Saturated: Each carbon atom is single-bonded to 4 other atoms; straight chain; molecules are close together; solid at room temperature Unsaturated: Double bonds in the C chain; kinked chain; molecules are farther apart; liquid at room temperature

15  luRs luRs  Let’s list some more differences in the form and function of fatty acids

16 Triglycerides (FATS)  3 fatty acids molecules joined to 1 glycerol  Saturated triglycerides are composed of saturated fatty acids (butter, other dairy products, fat from red meat)  Unsaturated triglycerides are composed of unsaturated fatty acids (mostly found oils and in plant seeds)

17 Phospholipids  Glycerol is connected to 2 fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group.  The plasma membrane of the animal and plant cells are composed of a phospholipid bilayer.

18 Waxes  Composed of a long fatty acid chain and a long alcohol chain.  Waterproof and provide protection.  Found on the surface of plants and in the ear canals of many animals (including humans).

19  NOT composed of fatty acids  Four fused carbon rings which are attached to other functional groups  Cholesterol (found in the cell and plasma membrane)  Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen


21 Is it made of Proteins?

22  Organic molecules compose of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and NITROGEN  Monomers = AMINO ACIDS  Examples:  Hair  Horns  Skin  Muscles  ENZYMES (to learn more about later!)

23  20 different AA  Central carbon, C, that is covalently bonded to 4 other groups 1. Hydrogen = blue 2. Carboxyl (-COOH) = green 3. Amine (-NH 2 ) = yellow 4. R group = red (varies in each AA and determines the AA’s form and function  AA can also be illustrated as a ball

24  Dipeptide: two amino acids bond  Polypeptides: long chains of amino acids (made up of 1 or more dipeptide)  Making proteins: what builds them?  Reaction: condensation or hydrolysis  Water is released or used

25  Some proteins are very large, some are small.  Protein shape:  Influences its function (form and function)  Shape can be influenced by factors like temperature and solvent) … for example, egg white is clear when it is uncooked, and white when it is cooked

26  RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts  Catalyst – speeds up the reaction by lowering the activation energy  Essential for cellular function  Each Enzyme bonds with a specific Substrate for form the Active Site

27  Speed up reactions – how????  Enzyme bonds to substrate and the enzyme shape changed slightly   The chemical bonds in the substrate are weakened   Lowers the activation energy  What happens after the reaction?  Enzyme releases the products  Enzyme is unchanged…  BUT changes in temperature and pH can change the enzyme (denature it) and it may not function properly or at all


29  Large and complex biological molecules  Store and transfer important information in the cell  Genetic Code  Two types – both are polymers  1. DNA - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid  2. RNA - RiboNucleic Acid  DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into PROTEINS

30  Each nucleotide is made of:  a phosphate group,  a five carbon sugar, and  a ring-shaped nitrogen base  Nitrogen bases  A - Adenine  C – Cytosine  G – Guanine  T – Thymine  U - uracil

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