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The building block of life..  All living and once-living things are made up of the element carbon  Carbon is unique because it can make up to four strong.

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Presentation on theme: "The building block of life..  All living and once-living things are made up of the element carbon  Carbon is unique because it can make up to four strong."— Presentation transcript:

1 The building block of life.

2  All living and once-living things are made up of the element carbon  Carbon is unique because it can make up to four strong covalent bonds Bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds  Carbon compounds form 3 main shapes:

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6  A single chain or ring is called a monomer  Many monomers can join together to make a large “macromolecule” called a polymer  A reaction that combines two or monomers is called a condensation reaction H 2 O is also produced through condensation reactions Also called dehydration synthesis http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/aminocon.html

7  The opposite of dehydration synthesis is hydrolysis Water (H 2 O) is added to a polymer and breaks the bonds linking two monomers together http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/disaccharidehyd rolysis.html http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/disaccharidehyd rolysis.html

8  Carbohydrates are compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio (example: CH 2 O, C 6 H 12 O 6 )  All living things use carbs as their main source of energy Plants use starch Animals use glycogen  Carbohydrates are also used for structure in cells Plants have cellulose in their cell walls Fungi have chitin in their cell wall and insects have chitin in their exoskeletons

9  Carbohydrates are sugars, or saccharides  A single sugar molecule is called a monosaccharide Glucose is a very important monosaccharide and makes up many more complex sugars Other examples of monosaccharides include:  Sucrose – table sugar  Lactose, found in milk  Fructose, found in most fruits

10  Many monosaccharides linked together are called polysaccharides Starch, glycogen are long chains of glucose molecules Cellulose and chitin are also polysaccharides

11  Proteins are made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur  Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids More than 20 different amino acids exist in nature

12 http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/aminocon.html

13  Proteins have four main shapes Straight chain of amino acids Chain with twisted amino acids Twisted and folded chain Knotted chain  Protein chains are connected by two bonded sulfur atoms, called disulfide bridges

14  Proteins control the rates of reactions and regulate cell processes (enzymes)  Proteins also provide structure within living things  Examples: Collagen makes up cartilage, tendons (muscles), skin, and bones Keratin makes up horns, feathers, hair, and finger nails Enzymes increase reaction rates  Carbonic anhydrase quickly removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream  Lactase breaks down lactose

15  Lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorous  Lipids are fats, oils, waxes, and steroids  Lipids are made up of a glycerol backbone and fatty acid chains

16 GLYCEROLFATTY ACIDS

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18  A saturated fatty acid is a fatty acid chain where all carbons are linked by single bonds Saturated fats are solids at room temperature  An unsaturated fatty acid is a fatty acid chain where there is at least one double bond between two carbon atoms The fatty acid chains are bent where there are double bonds Unsaturated fats are liquids at room temperature

19  Lipids are used for long-term energy storage Fats are used for energy storage  Lipids are also used in cell membranes and to deliver chemical messages Phospholipids make up cell membranes Steroids include hormones, which deliver chemical messages, and cholesterol Waxes include ear wax, beeswax, and the waterproof wax coating on plant stems and leaves

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21  Nucleic acids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and nitrogen  Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides  Nucleotides are made up of 5-Carbon sugar – deoxyribose (DNA) or ribose (RNA) Nitrogen base – A, T, G, C, or U Phosphate group

22  Nucleic Acids store genetic information (DNA) or synthesize, or put together, proteins (RNA)  The order of the nitrogen base pairs determine genetic code DNA has adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C) RNA has A, G, C, and uracil (U) instead of T A always joins T or U and G always joins C

23 DNA HAS A DOUBLE HELIX SHAPE RNA HAS A SINGLE HELIX SHAPE


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