2 Macromolecules - larger molecules made from smaller ones. 4 major classes of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.3 of these are polymers because they are made from individual building blocks called monomers.
34 Proteins - support, storage, transport, defenses, and enzymes. Made in ribosomes in cell.Proteins - amino acids linked together to form polymer.20 different amino acids that can be linked together to form thousands of different proteins.
36 Amino acids link - polypeptides - combine to form proteins. Amino acids made of hydrogen atom, carboxyl group, amino group, variable R group (or side chain).R group makes amino acids different from one another.
50 Protein’s shape can change due to environment. pH, temperature, or salinity (salt concentrations) change - protein can denature (starts to fall apart)Some proteins can return to functional shape after denaturation, others cannot.
56 Monomers of nucleic acids - nucleotides. Nucleotides made up of 3 parts: nitrogen base, five-carbon sugar, and phosphate group.Nitrogen bases, rings of carbon and nitrogen, come in 2 types: purines and pyrimidines.
66 DNA used to show evolutionary similarities between species. Two species that appear to be closely-related based on fossil and molecular evidence also more similar in DNA and protein sequences than more distantly related species.