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Natural Man-made Synthetic

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Presentation on theme: "Natural Man-made Synthetic"— Presentation transcript:

1 Natural Man-made Synthetic
Textiles Natural Man-made Synthetic

2 Fibers Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like.
All fibers have their own characteristics and properties, depending upon their source, chemical composition, and quality. No fiber is perfect. Each has some good, fair, and poor qualities that may make it suitable or unsuitable for certain uses.

3 Fibers con’t The basic characteristics of a fiber can be slightly altered but never totally changed. The fiber may be short, long, straight, or curly. These fiber characteristics greatly affect the appearance, and performance of the fabrics they are made into. The Characteristics you look for in children’s clothing is totally different that you would look for in evening wear for yourself. Thus an understanding of fibers, yarns, and fabrics if basic to the study of apparel.

4 Yarns Formed by a continuous strand of fibers usually twisted together.

5 Fabrics Are formed when yarns are combined. Fabrics may be constructed using a variety of different methods such as: Weaving Knitting Felting

6 Fiber Sources Natural- Plant or Animal fiber that grows in nature. Two categories: Cellulosic Fibers (plant), and Protein Fibers (animal). Include: Cotton, Linen, Wool, Silk, Ramie, Hemp, Jute, Bamboo, Leather

7 Fiber Sources (con’t) Man-made- Made from a Natural material called Cellulose. The cellulose is turned into a liquid and poured through a spinneret. Includes: Acetate, Rayon, Triacetate, Lyocell. Spinneret- Like a showerhead, that sprays out chemicals that harden into long strands called filament fibers.

8 Fiber Sources (con’t) Synthetic- Made from chemicals, petroleum, coal, and natural gas. All of these fibers are manufactured from different combinations of petroleum, natural gas, air and water. They are poured through a spinneret. Include: Acrylic, Polyester, Nylon, Modacrylic, Spandex, and Olefin.

9 Fiber Structures Staple Fibers- Short & Fuzzy- Usually between 1” and 4” long. These tiny fibers already exist in a plant or animal. The fibers just need to be cleaned up, sorted, and purified before they are used for fabrics. Short Look lumpy and bumpy under a microscope Include all natural fibers, except silk

10 Fiber Structures (con’t)
Filament Fibers- Long and smooth (like fishing line) Include all man-made, and synthetic fibers Include Silk Spinneret- All man-made and Synthetic fibers are poured through a Spinneret to create the fiber.

11 Natural Fibers Cotton Flax (Linen) Wool Silk Hemp Bamboo Ramie Leather

12 Natural Fibers- Sources
Plants and animals sources that grow in nature Cellulosic- Plant fibers Cotton Linen (flax) Ramie Hemp Bamboo Protein- Animal fibers Wool Silk Leather

13 General Characteristics of Natural Fibers
Absorbent- able to take up moisture Porous- able to breathe, air passes through Biodegradable- able to break down Most wrinkle easily Tend to be more expensive Staple fibers which look

14 Cotton advantages Strong, durable Soft Absorbs moisture Breathes well
Washes easily Dyes well

15 Cotton disadvantages Mildews Does not spring back into shape
Wrinkles easily Burns readily Shrinks

16 Clothing/Fashion uses
Blouses Dresses Skirts Underwear Shirts Jeans Sportswear

17 Care of Cotton Wash in washer and dry Iron at high temperature

18 Flax (Linen) Advantages
STRONG Absorbs moisture Comfortable in warm weather Washes easily

19 Linen disadvantages Mildews WRINKLES Burns easily

20 Clothing/Fashion uses
Blouses Dresses Skirts Suits

21 Care of Linen Wash or Dry Clean, CHECK LABEL
Washing will change the “hand of the fabric making it soft and wrinkled in appearance Iron at HIGH temperature with moisture

22 Wool Advantages WARM Durable ABSORBENT
Resilient (returns to original shape quickly) Resists wrinkling Fire Retardant

23 Wool Disadvantages Requires special care
Shrinks sometimes if washed, or dried in dryer Absorbs odors Requires protection against insects

24 Clothing/Fashion uses
Knit garments Sweaters Gloves Skirts Coats Sportswear Socks Suits slacks

25 Care of Wool Dry Clean or Hand Wash and Dry flat
Iron at low temperature

26 Silk Advantages Smooth Lustrous Strong Dries quickly

27 Silk Disadvantages Shows water spots Iron at low temperature Expensive

28 Care of silk Dry clean or hand wash, check label
Iron at low temperature

29 Clothing/Fashion uses
Skirts Blouses Dresses Neckties Scarves Lingerie Sweaters

30 Man-made Fibers Acetate Lyocell (Tencel®) Rayon

31 Man-made Fibers Made from petrochemicals Characteristics
Hydrophobic (water resistant) Promote static cling Heat Sensitive Many types pill Most are wrinkle resistant

32 Acetate Advantages Soft Drapeable Dries quickly Resistant to shrinking

33 Acetate Disadvantages
Can wrinkle Low abrasion resistance Heat sensitive Damaged by acetone

34 Acetate- care

35 Clothing/Fashion uses
Skirts Blouses Dresses Scarves Linings

36 Synthetic Fibers Acrylic Nylon Polyester Spandex (Lycra)
Aramid (Kevlar, Nomex) Olefin Triacetate Modacrylic

37 Acrylic Advantages Soft Warm Wool-like Light weight Wrinkle resistant
Resistant to moths and sunlight

38 Acrylic Disadvantages
Pills Static electricity Heat sensitive

39 Care of Acrylic Dry Cleaned or laundered Iron at low temperature

40 Clothing/Fashion uses
Sweaters Knit garments Faux Fur Coats Pants Skirts Shoe soles

41 Nylon Advantages Very Strong Resilient Lustrous Dries quickly

42 Nylon disadvantages May yellow or gray Heat Sensitive
Low moisture absorbency

43 Care of Nylon Easily laundered Iron at low temperature

44 Clothing/Fashion uses
Sportswear Jackets Raincoats Backpacks Purses

45 Polyester advantages Excellent WRINKLE RESISTANCE
Resistant to abrasion Dries quickly Blends well with other fibers Retains heat-set pleats and creases

46 Polyester disadvantages
Absorbs oily stains Low absorbency of moisture

47 Care of Polyester Easily laundered Needs little or no pressing

48 Clothing/Fashion uses
Pants Shirts Suits Sportswear Skirts

49 Rayon advantages Soft and comfortable High moisture absorbency

50 Rayon disadvantages May wrinkle or shrink unless treated May mildew

51 Clothing/Fashion uses
Dresses Skirts Lingerie Blouses

52 Care of Rayon Usually dry cleaned, sometimes washable
Iron at low temperature

53 Spandex advantages Excellent elasticity and recovery
Stronger and more durable than rubber Light weight Resistant to body oils

54 Spandex disadvantages
Damaged by chlorine bleach Damaged by heat

55 Clothing/Fashion uses
Pants Shirts Jeans Sportswear Underwear Socks Bras Tights

56 Aramid (Kevlar & Nomex) advantages
Exceptional strength Exceptional heat and flame resistance Resistant to stretch and abrasion

57 Aramid disadvantages Not absorbent

58 Clothing/Fashion uses
Kevlar Bullet Proof Vests Cut/Heat and Chemical resistant Gloves Nomex Fireman Uniforms Racing Apparel

59 The End…

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