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Textiles Natural Man-made Synthetic. Fibers Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like. All fibers have their own characteristics and properties,

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Presentation on theme: "Textiles Natural Man-made Synthetic. Fibers Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like. All fibers have their own characteristics and properties,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Textiles Natural Man-made Synthetic

2 Fibers Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like. All fibers have their own characteristics and properties, depending upon their source, chemical composition, and quality. No fiber is perfect. Each has some good, fair, and poor qualities that may make it suitable or unsuitable for certain uses.

3 Fibers con’t The basic characteristics of a fiber can be slightly altered but never totally changed. The fiber may be short, long, straight, or curly. These fiber characteristics greatly affect the appearance, and performance of the fabrics they are made into. The Characteristics you look for in children’s clothing is totally different that you would look for in evening wear for yourself. Thus an understanding of fibers, yarns, and fabrics if basic to the study of apparel.

4 Yarns Formed by a continuous strand of fibers usually twisted together.

5 Fabrics Are formed when yarns are combined. Fabrics may be constructed using a variety of different methods such as: o Weaving o Knitting o Felting

6 Fiber Sources Natural- Plant or Animal fiber that grows in nature. Two categories: Cellulosic Fibers (plant), and Protein Fibers (animal). Include: Cotton, Linen, Wool, Silk, Ramie, Hemp, Jute, Bamboo, Leather

7 Fiber Sources (con’t) Man-made- Made from a Natural material called Cellulose. The cellulose is turned into a liquid and poured through a spinneret. Includes: Acetate, Rayon, Triacetate, Lyocell. o Spinneret- Like a showerhead, that sprays out chemicals that harden into long strands called filament fibers.

8 Fiber Sources (con’t) Synthetic- Made from chemicals, petroleum, coal, and natural gas. All of these fibers are manufactured from different combinations of petroleum, natural gas, air and water. They are poured through a spinneret. Include: Acrylic, Polyester, Nylon, Modacrylic, Spandex, and Olefin.

9 Fiber Structures Staple Fibers- Short & Fuzzy- Usually between 1” and 4” long. These tiny fibers already exist in a plant or animal. The fibers just need to be cleaned up, sorted, and purified before they are used for fabrics. o Short o Look lumpy and bumpy under a microscope o Include all natural fibers, except silk

10 Fiber Structures (con’t) Filament Fibers- Long and smooth (like fishing line) o Include all man-made, and synthetic fibers o Include Silk Spinneret- All man-made and Synthetic fibers are poured through a Spinneret to create the fiber.

11 Natural Fibers Cotton Flax (Linen) Wool Silk Hemp Bamboo Ramie Leather

12 Natural Fibers- Sources Plants and animals sources that grow in nature Cellulosic- Plant fibers o Cotton o Linen (flax) o Ramie o Hemp o Bamboo o Ramie Protein- Animal fibers o Wool o Silk o Leather

13 –Absorbent- able to take up moisture –Porous- able to breathe, air passes through –Biodegradable- able to break down –Most wrinkle easily –Tend to be more expensive –Staple fibers which look General Characteristics of Natural Fibers

14 Cotton advantages Strong, durable Soft Absorbs moisture Breathes well Washes easily Dyes well

15 Cotton disadvantages Mildews Does not spring back into shape Wrinkles easily Burns readily Shrinks

16 Blouses Dresses Skirts Underwear Shirts Jeans Sportswear Clothing/Fashion uses

17 Care of Cotton Wash in washer and dry Iron at high temperature

18 Flax (Linen) Advantages STRONG Absorbs moisture Comfortable in warm weather Washes easily

19 Linen disadvantages Mildews WRINKLES Burns easily

20 Clothing/Fashion uses Blouses Dresses Skirts Suits

21 Care of Linen Wash or Dry Clean, CHECK LABEL Washing will change the “hand of the fabric making it soft and wrinkled in appearance Iron at HIGH temperature with moisture

22 Wool Advantages WARM Durable ABSORBENT Resilient (returns to original shape quickly) Resists wrinkling Fire Retardant

23 Wool Disadvantages Requires special care Shrinks sometimes if washed, or dried in dryer Absorbs odors Requires protection against insects

24 Knit garments Sweaters Gloves Skirts Coats Sportswear Socks Suits slacks Clothing/Fashion uses

25 Care of Wool Dry Clean or Hand Wash and Dry flat Iron at low temperature

26 Silk Advantages Smooth Lustrous Strong Dries quickly

27 Silk Disadvantages Shows water spots Iron at low temperature Expensive

28 Care of silk Dry clean or hand wash, check label Iron at low temperature

29 Skirts Blouses Dresses Neckties Scarves Lingerie Sweaters Clothing/Fashion uses

30 Man-made Fibers Acetate Lyocell (Tencel®) Rayon

31 Man-made Fibers Made from petrochemicals Characteristics –Hydrophobic (water resistant) –Promote static cling –Heat Sensitive –Many types pill –Most are wrinkle resistant

32 Acetate Advantages Soft Drapeable Dries quickly Resistant to shrinking

33 Acetate Disadvantages Can wrinkle Low abrasion resistance Heat sensitive Damaged by acetone

34 Acetate- care

35 Skirts Blouses Dresses Scarves Linings Clothing/Fashion uses

36 Synthetic Fibers Acrylic Nylon Polyester Spandex (Lycra) Aramid (Kevlar, Nomex) Olefin Triacetate Modacrylic

37 Acrylic Advantages Soft Warm Wool-like Light weight Wrinkle resistant Resistant to moths and sunlight

38 Acrylic Disadvantages Pills Static electricity Heat sensitive

39 Care of Acrylic Dry Cleaned or laundered Iron at low temperature

40 Sweaters Knit garments Faux Fur Coats Pants Skirts Shoe soles Clothing/Fashion uses

41 Nylon Advantages Very Strong Resilient Lustrous Dries quickly

42 Nylon disadvantages May yellow or gray Heat Sensitive Low moisture absorbency

43 Care of Nylon Easily laundered Iron at low temperature

44 Sportswear Jackets Raincoats Backpacks Purses Clothing/Fashion uses

45 Polyester advantages Excellent WRINKLE RESISTANCE Resistant to abrasion Dries quickly Blends well with other fibers Retains heat-set pleats and creases

46 Polyester disadvantages Absorbs oily stains Low absorbency of moisture

47 Care of Polyester Easily laundered Needs little or no pressing

48 Clothing/Fashion uses Pants Shirts Suits Sportswear Skirts

49 Rayon advantages Soft and comfortable High moisture absorbency drapeable

50 Rayon disadvantages May wrinkle or shrink unless treated May mildew

51 Dresses Skirts Lingerie Blouses Clothing/Fashion uses

52 Care of Rayon Usually dry cleaned, sometimes washable Iron at low temperature

53 Spandex advantages Excellent elasticity and recovery Stronger and more durable than rubber Light weight Resistant to body oils

54 Spandex disadvantages Damaged by chlorine bleach Damaged by heat

55 Pants Shirts Jeans Sportswear Underwear Socks Bras Tights Clothing/Fashion uses

56 Aramid (Kevlar & Nomex) advantages Exceptional strength Exceptional heat and flame resistance Resistant to stretch and abrasion

57 Aramid disadvantages Not absorbent

58 Clothing/Fashion uses Kevlar –Bullet Proof Vests –Cut/Heat and Chemical resistant Gloves Nomex –Fireman Uniforms –Racing Apparel

59 The End…


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