2Fibers Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like. All fibers have their own characteristics and properties, depending upon their source, chemical composition, and quality. No fiber is perfect. Each has some good, fair, and poor qualities that may make it suitable or unsuitable for certain uses.
3Fibers con’tThe basic characteristics of a fiber can be slightly altered but never totally changed. The fiber may be short, long, straight, or curly. These fiber characteristics greatly affect the appearance, and performance of the fabrics they are made into.The Characteristics you look for in children’s clothing is totally different that you would look for in evening wear for yourself.Thus an understanding of fibers, yarns, and fabrics if basic to the study of apparel.
4YarnsFormed by a continuous strand of fibers usually twisted together.
5FabricsAre formed when yarns are combined. Fabrics may be constructed using a variety of different methods such as:WeavingKnittingFelting
6Fiber SourcesNatural- Plant or Animal fiber that grows in nature. Two categories: Cellulosic Fibers (plant), and Protein Fibers (animal). Include: Cotton, Linen, Wool, Silk, Ramie, Hemp, Jute, Bamboo, Leather
7Fiber Sources (con’t)Man-made- Made from a Natural material called Cellulose. The cellulose is turned into a liquid and poured through a spinneret. Includes: Acetate, Rayon, Triacetate, Lyocell.Spinneret- Like a showerhead, that sprays out chemicals that harden into long strands called filament fibers.
8Fiber Sources (con’t)Synthetic- Made from chemicals, petroleum, coal, and natural gas. All of these fibers are manufactured from different combinations of petroleum, natural gas, air and water. They are poured through a spinneret. Include: Acrylic, Polyester, Nylon, Modacrylic, Spandex, and Olefin.
9Fiber StructuresStaple Fibers- Short & Fuzzy- Usually between 1” and 4” long. These tiny fibers already exist in a plant or animal. The fibers just need to be cleaned up, sorted, and purified before they are used for fabrics.ShortLook lumpy and bumpy under a microscopeInclude all natural fibers, except silk
10Fiber Structures (con’t) Filament Fibers- Long and smooth (like fishing line)Include all man-made, and synthetic fibersInclude SilkSpinneret- All man-made and Synthetic fibers are poured through a Spinneret to create the fiber.
12Natural Fibers- Sources Plants and animals sources that grow in natureCellulosic- Plant fibersCottonLinen (flax)RamieHempBambooProtein- Animal fibersWoolSilkLeather
13General Characteristics of Natural Fibers Absorbent- able to take up moisturePorous- able to breathe, air passes throughBiodegradable- able to break downMost wrinkle easilyTend to be more expensiveStaple fibers which look
14Cotton advantages Strong, durable Soft Absorbs moisture Breathes well Washes easilyDyes well
15Cotton disadvantages Mildews Does not spring back into shape Wrinkles easilyBurns readilyShrinks