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 2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc.. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 3 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics The Fiber Industry History and Development.

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Presentation on theme: " 2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc.. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 3 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics The Fiber Industry History and Development."— Presentation transcript:

1  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc.

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3 Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 3 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics The Fiber Industry History and Development Organization and Operation Merchandising and Marketing Trends in the Fiber Industry The Textile Fabric Industry History and Development Organization and Operation Merchandising and Marketing Trends in the Textile Fabric Industry

4  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 4 The Fiber Industry Fibers are the extremely fine, hair like strands almost invisible to the human eye, the smallest element of a fabric. The market breaks down into two groups: – Natural fibers – Manufactured fibers

5  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 5 Natural Fibers Cotton : Absorbs and dries quickly, is the most widely used of all natural fibers, and is good for warm weather clothing Wool : Absorbs and dries more slowly than cotton, but the natural crimping lends itself to insulating against the cold Silk : Its luxurious feel and breathable quality, can be worn year round

6  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 6 Ramie : A linen like fabric, is inexpensive and well suited to warm weather apparel Hemp : Formerly used for agricultural uses (rope, canvas and lamp oil) is now being used for garments and bed linens Linen : Absorbs and dries quickly like cotton, but wrinkles and is harder to iron than cotton Natural Fibers

7  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 7 Cellulose : Fibrous substance found in the natural fibers of plants Minimal chemical steps are employed to create cellulose-based fibers such as: –Rayon (1910) –Acetate (1924) Manufactured Fibers

8  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 8 Non-Cellulose fibers : Use petroleum, coal, gas, water, and air to create the fiber These fibers are combined by chemists into polymers such as: –Nylon (1938) –Acrylic (1950) Manufactured Fibers

9  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 9 Microfibers One of the most important technological breakthroughs in recent years occurred in 1989 Du Pont produced a fiber two to three times smaller than a human hair, the thinnest and finest of all manufactured fibers With the texture of silk or cashmere, wrinkle resistance, and machine washable qualities microfiber quickly became available in nylon, acrylic, and polyester

10  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 10 Microfibers

11  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 11 Fiber Distribution 1.Unbranded : No restrictions on end use, nor implied performance Three ways fiber producers sell their goods: 2.Branded or trademarked : Fiber quality guaranteed, end use of fiber (fabric) not 3.Trademarks: Can only be used if the manufacturer’s fabrics or end products pass tests set up by the fiber producer

12  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 12 Organization and Operation Natural fibers produced domestically are cotton and wool Cotton is sold in local markets (Southeast, Mississippi Delta, Texas panhandle and the Southwest) while wool is sold in a central market in Boston Manufactured fibers are made all over the country and sold by the producing plant

13  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 13 Advertising Fibers Important for both natural and manufactured fibers for persuading manufacturers to choose a fabric Manufactured fiber producers campaign more heavily than natural fiber producers

14  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 14 Advertising Fibers She has it! Du Pont, the manufacturers of Lycra, features denim jeans that “have” Lycra.

15  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 15 Advertising, in co-operation with manufacturers, benefits both primary and secondary industries Greater customer awareness allows faster integration of new fibers into the public conscious Retailers promote the goods that fiber producers subsidize advertising costs for Advertising Fibers

16  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 16 History and Development of Textile Fabric Industry First mechanized spinning process developed in England in the 18 th century. Fibers could now be twisted into yarn at a rapid pace. First U.S. yarn mill was built in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Because of higher demand, yarn mills needed faster weaving, hence the first power loom in America in The industry grew rapidly, with demand for goods far exceeding supply.

17  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 17 Begins with the creation of yarn from fiber Fibers are first twisted or spun into the yarn Yarns are then knitted or woven into greige goods, or unfinished fabrics Production of Fabrics

18  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 18 Textile Converters Buy greige goods from mills and finish the fabric Sell to manufacturer who uses it for the secondary market Must be on top of trends and work quickly

19  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 19 Fiber Producers Works 18 months to two years out, while the fabric makers work one year out Color is the most important variable, but texture and fabrication play large roles Fabric producers also supply garment hang tags and care labels

20  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 20 Environmental Issues Recycling Rhovyl: French company, creates Rhovyl’Eco apparel fibers from recycled plastic water bottles Wellman Inc.: Recycles 2.5 billion plastic bottles annually to create their fibers The U.S. floor covering industry responded by collecting used carpets and researching ways to recycle them The American Textile Manufacturers Institute (ATMI) launched an environmental protection program called E3 (Encouraging Environmental Excellence) in 1992

21  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 21 Trends in the Textile Fabric Industry High-tech fabrics are constructed, finished, or processed to create innovative, unusual, or hard to achieve qualities not normally available Bright futures lie ahead for these fabrics in activewear, rainwear, all weather wear, swimwear, protective clothing, heat and fire protection, and chemical protection Even designers Alexander McQueen, Helmut Lang, and Miuccia Prada use innovative fibers and closures on their runway clothing

22  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 22 Imports of apparel and textiles into the U.S. doubled from 1980 to 1986 But since the WTO went into effect in 1995, U.S. imports of textiles and apparel have increased 90% As cheap imports flood the market, domestic textiles mills have restricted their production of apparel fabrics and gone into the production of industrial and household goods Trends in the Textile Fabric Industry

23  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 23 The textile industry has nearly tripled its exports over the past decade, exporting 20% of its output—roughly $16 billion a year However, they must meet the ISO 9000 standards, international criteria designed to assess quality management U.S. companies must be ISO certified to export to European companies Trends in the Textile Fabric Industry

24  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 24 A bright spot for the domestic textile market are GEOTEXTILES, manufactured permeable textiles used for reinforcing or stabilizing civil engineering projects Greater Diversification of Products Kevlar and Tyvek are industrial fabrics used for diverse applications from book covers to wrapping houses to prevent moisture penetration Teflon, the non-stick cooking surface, is an industrial protective coating now used in garments to protect delicate fabrics

25  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 25 Government Regulations Creates a few large producers Encourages higher efficiency and recycling Will promote new processes to recover and recycle chemicals, fibers and dyes Results in production of fibers with more ecological sensitivity Encourages transfer printing to reduce dye house stream pollution Increasingly protects and advises consumers

26  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 26 New Technology in Equipment Quick response uses electronic data to shorten the time between placement of order and delivery of goods Bar codes help reduce inventory costs, warehouse time, forced markdowns and stock outs Automated data transmittal has become the industry standard The day of the fully automated textile plant is not far away

27  2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 5 Textiles: Fibers and Fabrics 27 New Technology in Equipment The production of textiles


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