Presentation on theme: "Textiles and Production 1 Chapter 6 Textiles and Production Textiles and Fashion."— Presentation transcript:
Textiles and Production 1 Chapter 6 Textiles and Production Textiles and Fashion
Textiles and Production 2 Chapter Objectives Discuss the fiber properties that determine appropriate end use and quality of fabrics. Identify the main natural fibers. Identify the main manufactured fibers. Explain the importance of fabric in fashion. Discuss how synthetic fibers are produced. Identify the two primary methods for making fibers into fabrics.
Textiles and Production 3 Fabrics and Fibers The basic building blocks for all fabrics are fibers. fabrics long pieces of cloth Section 6.1 fibers thin, hairlike strands that are the basic units used to make fabrics and textile products
Fashion and Fibers Section 6.1 Characteristics of Fibers Different fibers have specific properties that affect the characteristics of fabric. AppearanceStrengthAbsorbency WarmthShrinkagePrice 4
Textiles and Production 5 Fabrics and Fibers Yarns are spun from fibers and are used to make fabric. yarns uninterrupted threads of textile fibers that are ready to be turned into fabrics Section 6.1 Fibers are spun into yarn, and the yarn is used to make fabric
Fashion and Fibers Section 6.1 Types of Fibers ManufacturedNatural PlantAnimalSynthetic Chemical compounds derived from petroleum or natural gas Cellulosic Made from plants combined with chemicals Leathers and furs are not fibers, but they are used in the apparel industry. 6
Textiles and Production 7 Natural Fibers Natural fibers are a main product in the fashion industry. natural fibers textile fibers made from plants or animals Section 6.1 Natural Fibers to Know: Cotton Linen (Flax) Wool Silk Leather/Suede Fur Natural Fibers to Know: Cotton Linen (Flax) Wool Silk Leather/Suede Fur
Natural Fibers Section 6.1 *Cotton DisadvantagesAdvantages Comfortable Absorbent Washable Strong Inexpensive Shrinks in hot water Wrinkles easily 8 The most important textile fiber used by the fashion industry *END USES: Wide range of apparel: blouses, dresses, skirts, pants, underwear, linens
Natural Fibers Section 6.1 Linen DisadvantagesAdvantages Strong Comfortable Absorbent Durable Lint-free Wrinkles easily Can be expensive Shrinks Holds creases 9 Linen is a fabric made from the woody stem of the flax plant. *END USES: dresses, suits, jackets, home furnishings, draperies, table linens,dish towels Linen originally used for bedding – that’s where we got the name “linens” *END USES: dresses, suits, jackets, home furnishings, draperies, table linens,dish towels Linen originally used for bedding – that’s where we got the name “linens”
Natural Fibers Section 6.1 *Wool DisadvantagesAdvantages Warm Lightweight Wrinkle-resistant Absorbent Comfortable Durable Shrinks with heat and moisture Needs special care, dry cleaning Scratchy on skin 10 Wool fibers come from the shaved hair of sheep or lambs. Also can be from Cashmere or Angora goat hair fibers. *END USES: sweaters, coats, suits, jackets, skirts, socks, scarves. Also: carpets, upholstery and blankets. *END USES: sweaters, coats, suits, jackets, skirts, socks, scarves. Also: carpets, upholstery and blankets.
Textiles and Production 11 Natural Fibers Silkworm cocoons are used to make silk fiber, the only natural-filament fiber. filament a very long, fine, continuous thread Section 6.1
Natural Fibers Section 6.1 Silk DisadvantagesAdvantages Soft Drapes well Dyes and prints well Very strong Lightweight Expensive Needs special care, dry cleaning Stains with water 12 END USES: evening gowns, wedding gowns, lingerie, scarves, neckties. Also: curtains and decorative pillows
Natural Fibers Section 6.1 Leather – made from animal skins through a process called “tanning”. Can be made into “suede” with special equipment. DisadvantagesAdvantages Durable Comfortable Warm Scarce Expensive 13 *END USES: Coats, jackets, shoes, handbags, gloves, belts. Also: upholstery and decorating accessories
Natural Fibers Section 6.1 Fur- soft, hairy coat of an animal DisadvantagesAdvantages Durable Soft Flexible Warm Scarce Expensive 14 *Some consumer groups advocate discontinuing the use of fur products, which has resulted in the production of faux, or imitation, fur. END USES: coats, jackets, hats. Also: bed throws, rugs. END USES: coats, jackets, hats. Also: bed throws, rugs.
Textiles and Production 15 Manufactured Fibers Manufactured fibers – costs less than natural fibers. manufactured fibers fibers created by a manufacturing process of any substance that is not a fiber Section 6.1 Manufactured Fibers to Know: Rayon Nylon Polyester Acrylic Spandex Microfibers Lyocell Manufactured Fibers to Know: Rayon Nylon Polyester Acrylic Spandex Microfibers Lyocell
Textiles and Production 16 Manufactured Fibers Nylon was invented in 1938 and was the first synthetic fiber. Nylon is made from petrochemicals. Acrylic was originally used for blankets and sweaters because it resembles wool. Today year-round sweaters and socks are made with acrylic. Polyester was first produced commercially in 1953 and is the most widely sold synthetic fiber in the world. Section 6.1
Textiles and Production 17 Manufactured Fibers Spandex dramatically changed the swimwear and foundations (underwear) industry. Spandex can stretch over 500 percent without breaking. The brand name for spandex is Lycra ®. A new trend in fashion is the use of microfiber fabrics. Fabrics made from microfibers provide gentle drape and incredible softness. Lyocell is the newest of the cellulosic manufactured fibers. The chemicals used in production are recycled, and lyocell is biodegradable. Section 6.1
Textiles and Production 18 Manufactured Fibers Microfiber technology produces fibers that weigh less than 1.0 denier. denier a unit of measurement used to identify the thickness or diameter of a fiber Section 6.1 Two times finer than silk Three times finer than cotton Eight times finer than wool 100 times finer than a human hair
Textiles and Production 19 Fiber Trade Associations The leading natural fiber trade associations include: Section 6.1 Cotton Incorporated National Cotton Council Woolmark Americas, Inc. Mohair Council of America
Textiles and Production 20 What are the four main natural fibers? Cotton, linen, wool, silk What are the primary advantages and disadvantages of leather/suede? Advantages: durable, comfortable, warm Disadvantages: scarce, expensive What are three more recent manufactured fibers? Spandex, microfiber, lyocell 1. 2. 3. Section 6.1 6.1
Textiles and Production 21 Chapter 6 Textiles and Production Making Textiles
Textile Processes: Past and Present The first modern factories for natural fiber textiles were built during the Industrial Revolution of the 18 th century in England. Section 6.2 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. In 1801, Joseph Jacquard invented a loom that automated the placement of threads in the weaving process. In the early 1800s, the steam engine powered more than 100,000 looms and 9 million spindles in Britain. Today, technological advances have enabled the invention of synthetic fibers and computerized textile processes. 22
Textiles and Production 23 Making Synthetic Fibers Most synthetic and cellulosic manufactured fibers are created by extrusion. A finished fabric is ready to be used for manufacturing garments Section 6.2 extrusion a synthetic textile process in which solid raw materials are dissolved by chemicals or melted with heat to form a thick liquid that is extruded, or forced out, through the tiny holes of a device called a spinneret to create long fibers finished fabric fabric that has gone through all the necessary finishing processes and is ready to be used in the manufacturing of garments
Textiles and Production 24 How Fibers Become Fabrics: Weaving and knitting are the two primary methods for making fibers into fabric. Section 6.2
Textiles and Production 25 Weaves and Knits Weaves are usually made on a loom, which interlaces two sets of yarns at right angles to each other. Large quantities of fabrics are produced by industrial looms. Section 6.2 weaves woven fabrics that are composed of two sets of yarns with one set running the length and the other set running crosswise
Textiles and Production 26 Types of Weaves and Knits Some knits have their yarns running along the length of the fabric, while others have their yarns running across the width of the fabric. Section 6.2 knits knitted fabrics made from only one set of yarns that runs in the same direction Knit fabrics are held together by looping the yarns around each other, which gives natural flexibility and stretch.
Textiles and Production 27 Textiles and Fashion Marketing - Summary Section 6.2
Textiles and Production 28 What are the four main natural fibers? Cotton, linen, wool, silk What are the primary advantages and disadvantages of leather/suede? Advantages: durable, comfortable, warm Disadvantages: scarce, expensive What are three more recent manufactured fibers? Spandex, microfiber, lyocell 1. 2. 3. Section 6.1 6.1
Textiles and Production 29 How are synthetic fabrics produced? Most synthetics are created by the extrusion process. What are the two primary ways of turning fibers into fabric? Weaving and knitting Name an invention that greatly increased speed of processing of fibers? Steam engine or loom or computerized processes 4. 5. 6. Section 6.2 6.2
Textiles and Production 30 8.Explain how and why natural fiber associations promote their industry. Critical Thinking Checking Concepts Weaves are woven fabrics that are composed of two sets of yarns with one set running the length and the other set running crosswise. Knits are knitted fabrics made from only one set of yarns that runs in the same direction. 7. 7.Explain the difference between weaves and knits. Weaves are woven fabric composed of 2 sets of yarns running lengthwise and crosswise. Knits are knitted fabrics made from only 1 set of yarns running in same direction. With the development of synthetic fibers in the 20 th century, natural fiber industries had to compete to maintain markets. Thus, they formed associations to provide information to consumers and business and to promote natural fibers. 8.
Textiles and Production 31 Chapter Objectives Discuss the fiber properties that determine appropriate end use and quality of fabrics. Identify the main natural fibers. Identify the main manufactured fibers. Explain the importance of fabric in fashion. Discuss how synthetic fibers are produced. Identify the two primary methods for making fibers into fabrics.