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Textile Fibers and Yarns. Objectives: List the main characteristics of natural and manufactured fibers Explain how fibers are marketed Summarize the role.

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Presentation on theme: "Textile Fibers and Yarns. Objectives: List the main characteristics of natural and manufactured fibers Explain how fibers are marketed Summarize the role."— Presentation transcript:

1 Textile Fibers and Yarns

2 Objectives: List the main characteristics of natural and manufactured fibers Explain how fibers are marketed Summarize the role of leather and fur as primary materials in fashion Describe new fiber innovations Explain how fibers are made into yarns

3 Fiber Categories Natural – –Originate from natural sources – –Plant (cellulosic) or animal (protein) Manufactured, synthetic, or man-made (terms interchangeable) – –Originate from chemical sources – –May also be from regenerated or recycled sources

4 Natural Fibers Cellulosic (from plants) – –Cotton From cotton plants – –Flax (linen) From flax stems Protein (from animals) – –Silk From cocoons of silkworms – –Wool From fleece (hair) of sheep or lambs

5 Textile Terms Fibers – –Staple: short fibers Usually characterizes a natural fiber – –Filament: long continuous fibers Usually characterizes a synthetic fiber (except silk) Denier – –Fiber thickness or diameter Yarns –Fibers twisted together –Ply refers to how many yarns may be twisted together before weaving Fabrics –Yarns woven, knitted, or fused together to create fabric

6 Cotton Cellulosic fiber From “bolls” (seed pods) growing on bushes Comfortable Soft and durable Absorbent, cool to wear “Environmentally friendly” cotton can be grown in a range of colors

7 Wool Protein fiber From sheep Worsted wool is higher quality with long staple fibers (over 2 inches) Natural insulator Will shrink and mat if washed

8 Flax (Linen) World’s oldest textile fiber Cellulosic fiber from stem of flax plant Stiff, wrinkles easily Absorbent, cool to wear in heat Other uses –Dish towels –Tablecloths Flax is the fiber name; linen is the fabric name.

9 Other Natural Fibers Ramie Jute Sisal Hemp Raffia Down feathers Hair fibers from –Goats –Rabbits –Camels Cellulosic Fibers Protein Fibers

10 Marketing Natural Fibers Natural fiber trade associations: –Cotton Incorporated –National Cotton Council –Wool Bureau, Inc. –Mohair Council of America –International Silk Association Provide fabric libraries Natural Fibers r cool

11 Leather and Fur From hides or pelts (skins) of animals Expensive Artificial substitutes available (faux leather and fur) Leather used mainly for footwear Fur used for “prestige” apparel and accessories

12 Manufactured Fibers Process – –Raw materials melted or dissolved to form thick syrup – –Liquid extruded through spinneret – –Extruded filaments stretched and hardened into fibers

13 Categories of Manufactured Fibers (generic groups) Generic group: a family of manufactured fibers with similar chemical composition Common generic fibers from chemical or petroleum products: – –Polyester – –Nylon – –Olefin – –Acrylic Variants: trade or brand names given to slightly modified generic fibers Example: ANTRON nylon used for hosiery

14 Manufactured Fibers Qualities that are unique or superior to natural fibers – –Elasticity – –Nonallergenic – –Strength – –Resistant to abrasion Qualities that may be less than desirable –Feel clammy because they are nonabsorbent –Build up static electricity –Susceptible to oil stains

15 Other Types of Manufactured Fibers Fibers that come from a plant (cellulosic) source; chemically altered to create new fibers (regenerated) – –Rayon – –Acetate and Triacetate – –Lyocell

16 Fiber Innovation and Trends Fibers are designed for specific end-uses Polymers (chemical compounds) are engineered to meet needs “Microfibers” are ultra-fine deniers that make softer, more luxurious fabrics Spandex added in fiber blends to make stretchable fabrics Plastic soft drink bottles recycled into apparel

17 Marketing Manufactured Fibers Trademarked variants assure consumers of quality American Fiber Manufacturers Association helps inform the consumer, maintain government relations, and monitor foreign trade policy

18 Spinning Fibers into Yarns Spinning draws, twists, and winds staple, filament, or blends of both fibers into long, cohesive strands or yarns Yarns wound onto bobbins or spools Twist may vary, creating different yarn properties Early 18 th century spinning wheel

19 Yarn Terminology Yarn blends –Combining two or more fibers into a spun yarn Combination yarns –Contain two or more plys of different fibers Textured yarns –Changing the surface of a yarn using chemicals, heat, or machinery Texturing gives bulk, stretch, softness, and wrinkle-resistance to yarns.

20 Do You Know... The American Yarn Spinners Association deals with the government on yarn- industry issues such as trade laws, customs regulations, packaging, labeling, and product standards.


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