2 Objectives:List the main characteristics of natural and manufactured fibersExplain how fibers are marketedSummarize the role of leather and fur as primary materials in fashionDescribe new fiber innovationsExplain how fibers are made into yarns
3 Fiber Categories Natural Originate from natural sourcesPlant (cellulosic) or animal (protein)Manufactured, synthetic, or man-made (terms interchangeable)Originate from chemical sourcesMay also be from regenerated or recycled sources
4 Natural Fibers Cellulosic (from plants) Protein (from animals) Cotton From cotton plantsFlax (linen)From flax stemsProtein (from animals)SilkFrom cocoons of silkwormsWoolFrom fleece (hair) of sheep or lambs
5 Textile Terms Fibers Yarns Fabrics Denier Staple: short fibers Usually characterizes a natural fiberFilament: long continuous fibersUsually characterizes a synthetic fiber (except silk)DenierFiber thickness or diameterYarnsFibers twisted togetherPly refers to how many yarns may be twisted together before weavingFabricsYarns woven, knitted, or fused together to create fabric
6 Cotton Cellulosic fiber From “bolls” (seed pods) growing on bushes ComfortableSoft and durableAbsorbent, cool to wear“Environmentally friendly” cotton can be grown in a range of colors
7 Wool Protein fiber From sheep Worsted wool is higher quality with long staple fibers (over 2 inches)Natural insulatorWill shrink and mat if washed
8 Flax (Linen) World’s oldest textile fiber Cellulosic fiber from stem of flax plantStiff, wrinkles easilyAbsorbent, cool to wear in heatOther usesDish towelsTableclothsLinensFlax is the fiber name; linen is the fabric name.
9 Other Natural Fibers Ramie Jute Sisal Hemp Raffia Cellulosic Fibers Down feathersHair fibers fromGoatsRabbitsCamelsCellulosic FibersProtein Fibers
10 Marketing Natural Fibers Natural fiber trade associations:Cotton IncorporatedNational Cotton CouncilWool Bureau, Inc.Mohair Council of AmericaInternational Silk AssociationProvide fabric librariesNatural Fibers r cool
11 Leather and Fur From hides or pelts (skins) of animals Expensive Artificial substitutes available (faux leather and fur)Leather used mainly for footwearFur used for “prestige” apparel and accessories
12 Manufactured Fibers Process Raw materials melted or dissolved to form thick syrupLiquid extruded through spinneretExtruded filaments stretched and hardened into fibers
13 Categories of Manufactured Fibers (generic groups) Variants: trade or brand names given to slightly modified generic fibersExample: ANTRON nylon used for hosieryGeneric group: a family of manufactured fibers with similar chemical compositionCommon generic fibers from chemical or petroleum products:PolyesterNylonOlefinAcrylic
14 Manufactured Fibers Qualities that may be less than desirable Feel clammy because they are nonabsorbentBuild up static electricitySusceptible to oil stainsQualities that are unique or superior to natural fibersElasticityNonallergenicStrengthResistant to abrasion
15 Other Types of Manufactured Fibers Fibers that come from a plant (cellulosic) source; chemically altered to create new fibers (regenerated)RayonAcetate and TriacetateLyocell
16 Fiber Innovation and Trends Fibers are designed for specific end-usesPolymers (chemical compounds) are engineered to meet needs“Microfibers” are ultra-fine deniers that make softer, more luxurious fabricsSpandex added in fiber blends to make stretchable fabricsNEW!!Plastic soft drink bottles recycled into apparel
17 Marketing Manufactured Fibers Trademarked variants assure consumers of qualityAmerican Fiber Manufacturers Association helps inform the consumer, maintain government relations, and monitor foreign trade policy
18 Spinning Fibers into Yarns Spinning draws, twists, and winds staple, filament, or blends of both fibers into long, cohesive strands or yarnsYarns wound onto bobbins or spoolsTwist may vary, creating different yarn propertiesEarly 18th century spinning wheel
19 Yarn Terminology Yarn blends Combination yarns Textured yarns Combining two or more fibers into a spun yarnCombination yarnsContain two or more plys of different fibersTextured yarnsChanging the surface of a yarn using chemicals, heat, or machineryTexturing gives bulk, stretch, softness, and wrinkle-resistance to yarns.
20 Do You Know . . .The American Yarn Spinners Association deals with the government on yarn-industry issues such as trade laws, customs regulations, packaging, labeling, and product standards.