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Textile Fibers and Yarns

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Presentation on theme: "Textile Fibers and Yarns"— Presentation transcript:

1 Textile Fibers and Yarns

2 Objectives: List the main characteristics of natural and manufactured fibers Explain how fibers are marketed Summarize the role of leather and fur as primary materials in fashion Describe new fiber innovations Explain how fibers are made into yarns

3 Fiber Categories Natural
Originate from natural sources Plant (cellulosic) or animal (protein) Manufactured, synthetic, or man-made (terms interchangeable) Originate from chemical sources May also be from regenerated or recycled sources

4 Natural Fibers Cellulosic (from plants) Protein (from animals) Cotton
From cotton plants Flax (linen) From flax stems Protein (from animals) Silk From cocoons of silkworms Wool From fleece (hair) of sheep or lambs

5 Textile Terms Fibers Yarns Fabrics Denier Staple: short fibers
Usually characterizes a natural fiber Filament: long continuous fibers Usually characterizes a synthetic fiber (except silk) Denier Fiber thickness or diameter Yarns Fibers twisted together Ply refers to how many yarns may be twisted together before weaving Fabrics Yarns woven, knitted, or fused together to create fabric

6 Cotton Cellulosic fiber From “bolls” (seed pods) growing on bushes
Comfortable Soft and durable Absorbent, cool to wear “Environmentally friendly” cotton can be grown in a range of colors

7 Wool Protein fiber From sheep
Worsted wool is higher quality with long staple fibers (over 2 inches) Natural insulator Will shrink and mat if washed

8 Flax (Linen) World’s oldest textile fiber
Cellulosic fiber from stem of flax plant Stiff, wrinkles easily Absorbent, cool to wear in heat Other uses Dish towels Tablecloths Linens Flax is the fiber name; linen is the fabric name.

9 Other Natural Fibers Ramie Jute Sisal Hemp Raffia Cellulosic Fibers
Down feathers Hair fibers from Goats Rabbits Camels Cellulosic Fibers Protein Fibers

10 Marketing Natural Fibers
Natural fiber trade associations: Cotton Incorporated National Cotton Council Wool Bureau, Inc. Mohair Council of America International Silk Association Provide fabric libraries Natural Fibers r cool

11 Leather and Fur From hides or pelts (skins) of animals Expensive
Artificial substitutes available (faux leather and fur) Leather used mainly for footwear Fur used for “prestige” apparel and accessories

12 Manufactured Fibers Process
Raw materials melted or dissolved to form thick syrup Liquid extruded through spinneret Extruded filaments stretched and hardened into fibers

13 Categories of Manufactured Fibers (generic groups)
Variants: trade or brand names given to slightly modified generic fibers Example: ANTRON nylon used for hosiery Generic group: a family of manufactured fibers with similar chemical composition Common generic fibers from chemical or petroleum products: Polyester Nylon Olefin Acrylic

14 Manufactured Fibers Qualities that may be less than desirable
Feel clammy because they are nonabsorbent Build up static electricity Susceptible to oil stains Qualities that are unique or superior to natural fibers Elasticity Nonallergenic Strength Resistant to abrasion

15 Other Types of Manufactured Fibers
Fibers that come from a plant (cellulosic) source; chemically altered to create new fibers (regenerated) Rayon Acetate and Triacetate Lyocell

16 Fiber Innovation and Trends
Fibers are designed for specific end-uses Polymers (chemical compounds) are engineered to meet needs “Microfibers” are ultra-fine deniers that make softer, more luxurious fabrics Spandex added in fiber blends to make stretchable fabrics NEW!! Plastic soft drink bottles recycled into apparel

17 Marketing Manufactured Fibers
Trademarked variants assure consumers of quality American Fiber Manufacturers Association helps inform the consumer, maintain government relations, and monitor foreign trade policy

18 Spinning Fibers into Yarns
Spinning draws, twists, and winds staple, filament, or blends of both fibers into long, cohesive strands or yarns Yarns wound onto bobbins or spools Twist may vary, creating different yarn properties Early 18th century spinning wheel

19 Yarn Terminology Yarn blends Combination yarns Textured yarns
Combining two or more fibers into a spun yarn Combination yarns Contain two or more plys of different fibers Textured yarns Changing the surface of a yarn using chemicals, heat, or machinery Texturing gives bulk, stretch, softness, and wrinkle-resistance to yarns.

20 Do You Know . . . The American Yarn Spinners Association deals with the government on yarn-industry issues such as trade laws, customs regulations, packaging, labeling, and product standards.

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