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WORLD WAR I. 1. The Beginning a. By 1914 tensions in Europe had risen and many believed the continent was on the brink of war.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I. 1. The Beginning a. By 1914 tensions in Europe had risen and many believed the continent was on the brink of war."— Presentation transcript:


2 1. The Beginning a. By 1914 tensions in Europe had risen and many believed the continent was on the brink of war


4 b. Four factors contributed to this problem i. Militarism 1. Europe had undergone a massive military buildup during the period of the late 1800s into the early 1900s a. European countries had colonized around the world and were now wanting to protect their own interest b. Left all sides anxious 2. Remember the larger the population of a country the bigger army it could amass

5 ii. Alliances 1. Nations entered into alliances with other nations 2. Two major alliances a. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy b. The Triple Entente: France, Russia and Great Britain

6 iii. Imperialism 1. Quest to build empires fuelled ill will among the nations 2. Germany, France, Russia and Great Britain all saw themselves as imperial nations 3. Did not think they could stand by while a rival gained power


8 iv. Nationalism 1. Nationalism: Strong devotion to one’s national group or culture 2. Movement led to formation of new countries like Germany and Italy and struggles for power 3. Strongest national tensions were in the Balkans in a nation called Serbia

9 4. Pan-Slavic Nationalism a. Pan-Slavism: the idea of a unified Slavic race under the protection of Russia b. This would give Russia access to the much wanted warm water seaports c. Russians supported liberation movements of the Slavic peoples such as Serbians, Croats, Slovaks, and Poles, etc….

10 2. Austria-Hungary and Serbia a. 1908 i. Austria-Hungary took the Slavic territories of Bosnia- Herzegovina from the weak Ottoman Empire ii. Serbia appealed to Russia for help, but Russia was just coming off a defeat by Japan and was unable to help

11 b. The Balkan Wars i. Began in 1912 and was between the Balkan countries and the Ottoman Empire ii. Serbia wanted Albania in exchange for fighting on the Russian side 1. They did not get it


13 iii. 1913, Albania was made independent and off limits to Serbia 1. Russia was not able to influence or help out Serbia a. Serbians were angry b. Russia was left humiliated iv. Russia had no power in Europe 1. Russians vow never to be again humiliated 2. Were ready for a war in order to save their honor

14 3. War Breaks Out a. June 28, 1914 i. Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo 1. Was the next in line for the Austrian-Hungarian throne ii. While driving through the city with his wife Sophie, they are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip 1. Was a member of a Serbian national group called the Black Hand

15 Franz Ferdinand and SophieGavrilo Princip

16 iii. Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia and made a list of demands for Serbia to agree to 1. Terms were humiliating to Serbia and she refused to agree to them iv. Austria declared war on July 28, 1914

17 b. Mobilization i. Russia will side with Serbia and began to prepare for war ii. Russia’s mobilization was seen as a threat and Germany (all of Austria-Hungary) mobilizes against Russia iii. Germany will declare war on Russia and then France

18 c. Schlieffen Plan i. Germany had developed a plan to help prevent fighting a war on two fronts ii. Plan was called Schieffen Plan 1. Called for Germany to quickly defeat France in the west and then head east to fight Russia


20 iii. Quickest way to France was through Belgium 1. Belgium was neutral country 2. Germany invades and causes Great Britain to enter the war iv. Great Britain joins in on France’s and Russia’s side

21 d. Two Powers i. Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary ii. Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia and Serbia



24 4. Stalemate a. 1914 i. By the end of 1914 two trench systems stretched hundreds of miles across Europe ii. The Western Front was the dead lock region in western Europe


26 The War Effort

27 1. Trench Warfare a. Life in the Trench i. Soldiers lived there ii. Wet and dirty iii. Bullets, bombs and grenades would go off all around you iv. Many times dead bodies stayed where they were at v. Rats and lice were present







34 vi. “Over the Tops” 1. Soldiers were sent over the trench and ran towards the enemy lines through no man’s land 2. Many were gunned down before they ever made it to the other side

35 b. Trench warfare made the development of new technology necessary

36 2. New Warfare a. Poison Gas i. Different kinds of gas could do different things i.e.: choke, blind or burn victims ii. This led to the development of gas masks

37 b. Rapid fire machine guns

38 c. Tanks i. Armored vehicles ii. Pioneered by the British

39 d. Aircraft i. First used to observe enemy positions ii. Eventually guns and bombs were attached e. Even with all of this technology neither side was able to gain an adventure

40 3. The Home Front a. Government Action i. War was also being waged at home ii. Governments took action 1. Factories produced military equipment 2. Citizens would conserve food 3. Governments tried to control public opinion a. Governments would censor newspaper reports

41 4. Used propaganda a. Information used to influence opinion b. Encouraged support of the war i. Used posters, pamphlets, and articles




45 b. Women and the War Effort i. With men away fighting the war on the various fronts, women at home filled positions that were once occupied by men ii. Jobs 1. Work in factories 2. Help send food and weapons 3. Served as nurses iii. All of these things would help transform the public view of what women could do




49 4. Western Front Battles a. Battle of Verdun i. Verdun was a French fortress ii. Purpose of the battle was to kill and injure as many French soldiers as possible iii. Lasted from February to December 1914 iv. Around 400,000 French casualties and just as many Germans v. Ended in a stalemate




53 b. Battle of the Somme i. Fought near the Somme River in France, June 1916 ii. It was an allied assault iii. On the first day alone the British had 60,000 casualties iv. Ended in December 1916 with no major break through


55 c. 3 rd Battle of Ypres i. Took place in Belgium ii. Ended badly for the British d. After three years of fighting the lines were virtually unchanged



58 5. Around the World a. Ottoman Empire i. Entered the war on the Central powers side in late 1914 ii. Controlled the Dardanelles 1. A water route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea 2. Allies used this straight to ship supplies to Russia

59 b. The Gallipoli Campaign i. Began in 1915 ii. It was an Allied effort to destroy guns and forts that lined the Dardanelles iii. Allies will give up after months of fighting and nearly 200,000 casualties



62 c. The Armenian Massacre i. Late 1914, Russia attacks the Caucasus, a region between the Black and Caspian Seas 1. Area was home to ethnic Armenians 2. They were a minority in the Ottoman Empire, because most were Christians

63 ii. Ottoman’s claimed the Armenians were helping the Russians iii. Spring 1915 1. Ottoman’s began to forcibly remove the Armenians from the Caucasus 2. Some 600,000 Armenians died either from violence, starvation or both 3. Many accused Ottoman’s of genocide: the deliberate destruction of a racial, political or cultural group




67 The Russian Revolution

68 1. Before the War a. The Bolsheviks i. Many were discontent with conditions within Russia and started to support a small political group called the Bolsheviks ii. They were a Marxist group that wanted to change Russia through revolution

69 b. Vladimir Lenin i. Leader of the Bolsheviks ii. Wanted to overthrow the czar iii. He wanted the Proletariat (industrial workers) to gain power and rule Russia as a socialist country

70 c. Economic Conditions i. By 1914, economic conditions were so bad that World War I provided some relief ii. Czar Nicholas II hoped the war would unite the country and rally the citizens around his leadership

71 2. World War I a. Military i. Russia’s army was around 6 million at the start of the war ii. Russia was ill-prepared for war 1. Russia’s factories could not produce the amount of ammunition or supplies that the army needed quickly enough 2. Military not equipped to fight a major war a. Equipment was out of date b. Leaders within the army were poorly qualified

72 iii. Russia will enjoy initial success, but their losses will soon outweigh their victories iv. Czar Nicholas II takes personal command of the army in 1915 1. His fate will be linked with the army 2. When the army lost a major campaign, people’s faith in his leadership was severed

73 Nicholas IIAlexandra


75 b. Conditions in Russia i. Food and other goods grew scarce in major cities ii. Czar left his wife, Czarina Alexandra, in charge when he left for the front iii. Czarina relied on the advice of Grigory Rasputin 1. Rasputin was a self-proclaimed holy man 2. Many viewed him as immoral and corrupt


77 3. Revolution Begins a. March 18, 1917 i. Citizens protest in Russia’s capital, Petrograd ii. Protested lack of food and fuel iii. Police and soldiers refuse to follow orders to shoot rioters iv. Czar ordered the Duma, Russia’s legislature to disband. The Duma does not v. Nicholas is forced to abdicate his throne. This ends the Russian monarchy

78 b. Provisional Government i. Duma established a provisional government after the czar abdicated ii. Led by Alexsandr Kerensky iii. Government planned to continue fighting in the war even though the Russian people were tired of fighting iv. Bolsheviks oppose Kerensky’s government 1. Wanted to fundamentally change Russian society and government

79 c. Bolsheviks i. Planned to abolish private property ii. Enforce social equality iii. Believed revolution would sweep the world iv. Lenin will be snuck back into Russia by the Germans in 1917

80 4. Bolshevik Revolution a. Mid 1917 i. Russians ordered final military offensive and failed ii. Led to widespread rebellion b. Nov. 1917 armed factory workers a.k.a. the Red Guard attacked the provisional government i. This is known as the October Revolution

81 c. Kerensky’s government collapses d. Lenin will become Russia’s leader i. He declared private property illegal and gave land to the peasants ii. He also turned factories over to the workers

82 5. After the Revolution a. Peace with the Central Powers i. Leon Trotsky 1. Sent to negotiate a peace with the Central Powers 2. Accepted an agreement that forced Russia to give up huge chunks of its empire

83 b. Civil War i. Fought by the “Red Army” (Bolsheviks) and the “White Army” (those who opposed the Bolsheviks) ii. Lasted 3 years iii. Bolsheviks triumphed in late 1920

84 c. Economic Policy i. Lenin will introduce a new economic policy 1. The plan permitted some capitalistic activity 2. People could sell food at a profit 3. This was meant to encourage food production

85 6. The Soviet Union a. 1922 i. The economy had improved ii. Russia united countries that had once belong to it and formed the U.S.S.R or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic b. 1924 i. Lenin will die without a successor

86 United States Enters the War

87 1. Events Leading to U.S. Entry a. Neutrality i. Many sided with the Allies, but felt the U.S. should stay out of the war ii. President Wilson 1. Believed the United States should not be involved in other countries’ affairs 2. 1916, Wilson will run for re-election with the campaign slogan, “He kept us out of war”


89 b. Trouble at Sea i. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare 1. This is a German Policy a. Any ship traveling around Great Britain was subject to attack by German U-boats 2. Initially attacked British ships but then started attacking merchant ships a. This was done in response to Great Britain’s dependence on supplies being shipped in by other nations

90 ii. Lusitania 1. Ship sunk by the Germans 2. Killed 1200 people; 120 were Americans 3. Two more ships were sunk carrying Americans in August and September 1915

91 iii. United States’ Response 1. The government complained to Germany about the loss of American lives a. Germany agreed to stop attacks; feared U.S. involvement in the war 2. By 1917, Germany believed the only way to defeat Britain was with unrestricted submarine warfare

92 c. The Zimmerman Note i. February 1917, The Zimmerman Note was discovered 1. It was a secret message sent to Mexico by a German diplomat named Arthur Zimmerman 2. Proposed that Mexico attack the United States a. In return Mexico would get Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico

93 19 January, 1917: The Zimmerman Note to the German Minister to Mexico -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (German Secretary of State)

94 ii. Note angered Americans and they began to call for war iii. United States had reasons to go to war 1. Common ancestry with Great Britain 2. Strong financial ties to Allied powers a. The United States was selling millions of dollars worth of war goods to Britain each week


96 iv. April 1917, the United States enters the war on the Allied side


98 2. U.S. Involvement in the War a. Germany’s Response i. Germany had to win the war before America could send troops to Europe ii. After Russia’s exit Germany moves all troops to the Western Front 1. March 18, Germany launches a major assault on the Western Front 2. Advance within 40 miles of Paris

99 b. Important Battles i. The 2 nd Battle of the Marne 1. Allied forces are able to stop German assault 2. Allied forces are able to effectively combine the use of tanks and aircraft 3. Allied forces gain huge amounts of territory

100 ii. Oct. 1918 1. Allied forces break through the Hindenburg line 2. German leaders approach Allies in seeking an armistice (truce) 3. On November 11, 1918 at 11 a.m. the war ends

101 3. A Difficult Peace a. Different Desires i. The major leaders of the Allied powers all wanted different things as far as a peace agreement went

102 ii. United States 1. Led by Woodrow Wilson 2. The 14 Points a. Wilson’s vision for world peace b. Included the reduction of weapons c. Right for people to choose their own government d. Propose an organization be created that the world’s leaders would join to protect one another from aggression

103 iii. France 1. Led by George Clemenceau 2. Wanted to punish Germany 3. Wanted Germany to pay for war costs

104 iv. Great Britain 1. Led by David Lloyd George 2. Great Britain was somewhere between the United States’ position and France’s position 3. Wanted to punish Germany but did not want to weaken Germany either

105 v. Italy 1. Led by Vittorio Orlando 2. Hoped to gain territory for Italy 3. Largely ignored by the other three

106 b. The Treaty of Versailles i. Named after the French Palace of Versailles where it was signed ii. Was closer to what Clemenceau wanted than Wilson




110 iii. Parts of the treaty 1. Germany is forced to pay large amounts to victims of the war 2. Germany was forced to take full responsibility of the war 3. Forced Germany to limit the size of its army 4. Germany had to return conquered land to France and Russia a. Other lands were taken to form newly independent nation of Poland b. Germany’s colonies were given to various world leaders

111 iv. Germany is humiliated by the treaty but had to accept v. Treaty was signed on June 18, 1919


113 c. Outcome of the Treaty i. It crippled the Germany economy ii. Bitterness from the treaty would affect politics for years to come iii. It established the League of Nations 1. This is a victory for Wilson

114 d. The League of Nations i. Main goals: 1. Encourage international cooperation 2. To keep peace between the nations

115 ii. Problem: It does not represent everyone 1. Germany is excluded 2. Wilson is unable to convince the United States government to ratify the treaty a. Many feared that the League of Nations would drag them into another war 3. The absence of the United States weakened the League of Nations

116 e. Other Treaties i. Other treaties were formed to deal with Austria- Hungary and Ottoman Empires 1. Vast lands of the Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires were broken apart to create independent nations a. Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Turkey

117 2. Former Ottoman lands were turned into mandates (territories) to be ruled by European powers a. France was given Syria and Lebanon b. Great Britain was given Palestine and Iraq

118 ii. Zionist movement 1. The desire to create Jewish state in the Middle East began to start in Europe 2. 1917- the British issued the Balfour Declaration a. Favored a Jewish state in Palestine

119 iii. European nations were only suppose to govern mandates until they were able to govern themselves 1. Mandates will become nothing more than colonies

120 4. Impact of the War a. Human Costs i. 9 million are killed ii. Millions more are wounded or taken prisoner iii. In Germany, France and Russia almost an entire generation died or were wounded iv. Spring 1918 influenza swept across the globe making things worse and killing millions more

121 b. Economic Costs i. France, Belgium and Russia were left devastated ii. Europe lost role as the dominant economic region of the world 1. The United States and Japan prospered during the war iii. Countries were forced to come up with new sources or develop their own products

122 c. Political Change i. Russia was now Communist ii. Old monarchies are gone 1. Examples: Austria-Hungary (Hapsburgs), Germany, the Ottomans and Russia (Romanov) iii. Other countries experienced political upheaval

123 d. Unrest in the Colonies i. After fighting in the war for their sovereigns many colonies thought that they might gain their independence after the war ii. This did not happen and independence was put off for many of them

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