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WWI  What?  War invovling nearly all the nations of the World.  When?  1914-1918.

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Presentation on theme: "WWI  What?  War invovling nearly all the nations of the World.  When?  1914-1918."— Presentation transcript:


2 WWI  What?  War invovling nearly all the nations of the World.  When?  1914-1918

3 Causes  M-Militarism  A- Alliances  N- Nationalism  I- Imperialism  A- Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

4 Militarism Massive military buildup in European countries, late 1800s and early 1900s Wanted to protect overseas colonies from other nations Growing power of armed forces left all sides ready to act at first sign of trouble Minor disagreements had potential to turn to armed conflict

5 Alliances Nations formed partnerships to protect against opposing forces Central Powers united Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy Great Britain joined France, Russia in Allied Powers Believed no one nation would attack another, because allies would join fight

6 Imperialism Late 1800s and early 1900s saw quest to build empires Created rivalry, ill will among European nations Germany, France, Russia, Great Britain vied to become great imperial nations Each did not want others to gain power

7 Nationalism Strong devotion to one’s national group or culture, increased in late 1800s Led to formation of new countries, struggles for power Most visible in Balkan Peninsula, southeastern Europe Home to many ethnic groups trying to break free from Ottoman Empire

8 Assassination  June 28, 1914: Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand



11 Fighting Begins Germany faced war on two fronts: Russia to east, France to west Decided to strike France quickly then move to Russia Began with quick strike into neutral Belgium Attack on neutral country led Great Britain to declare war on Germany

12 Key Players  Central Powers  Germany  Austria-Hungary  Allied Powers  Great Britain  France  Russia  Serbia

13 Trench Warfare  A new fighting style in which each side fights from deep ditches, or trenches dug into the ground  Retreating Germans dug series of trenches  Waited in trenches for Allied attack  Trenches elaborately constructed, cleverly concealed  Allies dug trenches of their own  Major battles for months with little change in positions  Deadlocked region became known as Western Front

14 Trench Warfare

15 New Weapons  Machine gun  Poison gas  Airplane  Submarine  Tank  Why these weapons? Why now?

16 Russian Revolution  Unhappiness with the war among the Russian people  Germany/Austria beating Russians  Changes in government  Lenin transported  Mensheviks (moderates) victorious  Bolshevik counter revolution  Russia withdraws from war  Germany ready to have a single front war

17 New German Offensive Wanted to deal decisive blow to Central Powers before U.S. had time to ready for war Opportunity came with Russia’s withdrawal from war – Russia out by end of 1917 – German troops no longer needed on Eastern front – Could launch new offensive in the west

18 Assault on West Launched major assault, March 1918 Made progress, advanced to within 40 miles of Paris High cost to Germany, lost 800,000 troops By June, 1918, U.S. troops arrived in Europe Gave Allies hope, discouraged Germans

19 End of the War  Battle of Argonne broke German morale  Versailles Peace Treaty  70 nationalities  Woodrow Wilson (League of Nations)  Britain and France desires  Fence Germany in  Reparations  Mandates over other territories  Division of German colonies  German reaction  Too harsh  Felt justified in the war  Seeds of WWII planted

20 Economic CostsPolitical Change War destroyed national economies Farmland, cities devastated Economic chaos in much of Europe Cost Europe role as dominant economic region of world U.S., Japan, others prospered during war World War I caused widespread political unrest Communist revolution in Russia Monarchies in Austria- Hungary, Ottoman Empire overthrown Political, social turmoil would shape world in years to come Human Costs Nearly 9 million soldiers killed in battle Millions wounded, taken prisoner Almost an entire generation of young German, Russian, French men died, were wounded in war Deadly outbreak of influenza spread by returning soldiers killed some 50 million worldwide, spring 1918

21 Treaty of Versailles After difficult negotiations, the Allies finally compromised on the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty was named after the French Palace of Versailles, where the treaty signing took place. Germany forced to pay enormous amount of money to war’s victims Treaty also assessed responsibility for the war on Germany Key points Military size limited Return conquered lands to France, Russia German land taken to form Poland Other colonies given to various world powers Weaker Germany Furious, though no choice but to sign Reparations crippled economy Bitterness would affect German politics in years to come German reaction

22 Aftermath League of Nations Organization of world governments proposed by Wilson Established by Treaty of Versailles Main goals Encourage cooperation, keep peace between nations Germany excluded U.S. did not ratify treaty, not member, weakened League Other treaties Separate agreements with all defeated Central Powers Made important changes to Europe Changes in Europe Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire lands broken apart Independent nations created: Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Turkey

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