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Revolution in Russia Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus

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Presentation on theme: "Revolution in Russia Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus"— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolution in Russia Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus
Russia and World War I The Russian Revolution Faces of History: Vladimir Lenin After the Revolution

2 Revolution in Russia Main Idea Reading Focus
The war and social unrest combined to push Russia to the edge of a revolution. The events that followed led to Russia’s exit from the war and became a major turning point in world history. Reading Focus What was Russia’s experience in World War I? What were the main events of the Russian Revolution? What major events took place after the Russian Revolution?

3 The Years Before the War
Russia and World War I Russia a troubled nation Czar Nicholas II had promised reform after 1905 revolution, but delivered little real change Bolsheviks sought to change life through revolution, wanted to overthrow czar Led by Lenin, wanted proletariat to rule Russia as socialist country The Years Before the War Adaptation of Marxist ideas of overthrow of capitalism Wanted elite group to keep much of power over Russia As Russia’s problems grew more serious, Bolsheviks gained more followers Czar Nicholas hoped World War I would cause people to rally to his leadership Bolshevik Plan

4 Russia in World War I Preparations for War On the Battlefield
At the start of the war, Russia had an enormous army of some 6 million soldiers. Outbreak of fighting caused patriotism, rush to join military Otherwise Russia ill-prepared for war Factories unable to produce supplies quickly Transportation system weak Equipment outdated Preparations for War Many Russian officers advanced on connections, not ability Some initial successes on battlefield Losses soon outnumbered victories Millions of Russian soldiers wounded, killed during early battles On the Battlefield

5 Conditions Grow Worse Czar Nicholas II took personal command of forces, 1915 Move made little sense since he knew little of military matters Czar’s fate became linked with fate of Russian armed forces Bad situation grew worse under Czar’s command Russian army seemed doomed Central Powers were able to stop Russian offensive Destroyed Russian soldiers’ faith in leadership Army had little strength, even less confidence Conditions in Russia worse than on battlefield Food, goods scarce; peasants grew desperate Unpopular Czarina relied on Grigory Rasputin, viewed as corrupt, immoral Shaky support for Russian monarchy dipped even lower

6 How did World War I affect Russia?
Find the Main Idea How did World War I affect Russia? Answer(s): poor economic conditions, worker strikes, unpopular czar

7 The Russian Revolution
By the end of 1916, Russia was once again on the edge of a revolution. As the new year began and conditions in Russia continued to worsen, the Russian people clearly wanted a change. Citizens protested in streets of Petrograd, March 8, 1917 Police, soldiers refused to shoot rioters Government was helpless Revolution Begins Ordered legislature to disband His order defied Citizens, government, military refused to obey Czar Forced to abdicate, March 15, 1917 Czar Nicholas II March revolution known as February Revolution Russian calendar at time 13 days behind New calendar adopted, 1918 Calendar Change

8 The Russian Revolution
Provisional Government Duma established temporary government Led by Aleksandr Kerensky Many unhappy with new leadership Bolsheviks Led opposition to Kerensky’s provisional government Wanted fundamental change in government and society Planned Marxist revolution Bolshevism Abolish private property Enforce social equality Later known as Marxism-Leninism Vladimir Lenin Bolshevik leader forced to live outside Russia Returned, April 1917 Germany hoped Lenin would weaken Russian war effort


10 The Bolshevik Revolution Kerensky’s final offensive
Kerensky ordered final military offensive against Central Powers along Eastern Front, mid-1917 Drive failed and led to widespread rebellion in Russian army Weakened Russian army collapsed Conditions ideal for Lenin Armed Bolshevik factory workers, Red Guard, attacked provisional government, November 1917 Known as October Revolution Kerensky’s government collapsed after nearly bloodless struggle Bolshevik takeover Established radical Communist program Made private ownership of land illegal Land given to peasants Control of factories given to workers Lenin became leader

11 What were the main events of the Russian Revolution?
Summarize What were the main events of the Russian Revolution? Answer(s): the February Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution

12 Lenin sought to end Russian involvement in World War I
After the Revolution Lenin sought to end Russian involvement in World War I Sent Leon Trotsky to negotiate peace with Central Powers Russia’s army virtually powerless Trotsky had to accept agreement harsh on Russia Russia gained peace, gave up large parts of empire

13 Reaction to Treaty Civil War
Bolsheviks’ acceptance of peace treaty angered many Russians Bolsheviks’ opponents organized the White Army White Army included army leaders, political opponents, wealthy Russians opposed to Communist system Civil War White Army received military help from France, U.S. Civil War raged for 3 years between Lenin’s Red Army and White Army Millions of Russians died in fighting, famines Bolsheviks finally triumphed, late 1920

14 New Economic Policy Collapsing economy Key points The Soviet Union
Brought on by civil war, pushed Russia to edge of total ruin Peasants, workers especially hard hit Lenin introduced New Economic Policy, 1921 Key points New Economic Policy permitted some capitalist activity Peasants could sell food at profit Tried to encourage badly needed food production The Soviet Union Russia reunited with several neighboring lands, became Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, dominated by Communist leadership Lenin’s death in 1924 led to struggle for control of Soviet Union

15 What events took place after the Russian Revolution?
Sequence What events took place after the Russian Revolution? Answer(s): The Bolsheviks formed the Red Army which fought against the White Army. The White Army was made up of army leaders, political opponents of the Bolsheviks, and wealthy Russians.

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