Presentation on theme: "Revolution in Russia Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus"— Presentation transcript:
1 Revolution in Russia Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Russia and World War IThe Russian RevolutionFaces of History: Vladimir LeninAfter the Revolution
2 Revolution in Russia Main Idea Reading Focus The war and social unrest combined to push Russia to the edge of a revolution. The events that followed led to Russia’s exit from the war and became a major turning point in world history.Reading FocusWhat was Russia’s experience in World War I?What were the main events of the Russian Revolution?What major events took place after the Russian Revolution?
3 The Years Before the War Russia and World War IRussia a troubled nationCzar Nicholas II had promised reform after 1905 revolution, but delivered little real changeBolsheviks sought to change life through revolution, wanted to overthrow czarLed by Lenin, wanted proletariat to rule Russia as socialist countryThe Years Before the WarAdaptation of Marxist ideas of overthrow of capitalismWanted elite group to keep much of power over RussiaAs Russia’s problems grew more serious, Bolsheviks gained more followersCzar Nicholas hoped World War I would cause people to rally to his leadershipBolshevik Plan
4 Russia in World War I Preparations for War On the Battlefield At the start of the war, Russia had an enormous army of some 6 million soldiers.Outbreak of fighting caused patriotism, rush to join militaryOtherwise Russia ill-prepared for warFactories unable to produce supplies quicklyTransportation system weakEquipment outdatedPreparations for WarMany Russian officers advanced on connections, not abilitySome initial successes on battlefieldLosses soon outnumbered victoriesMillions of Russian soldiers wounded, killed during early battlesOn the Battlefield
5 Conditions Grow WorseCzar Nicholas II took personal command of forces, 1915Move made little sense since he knew little of military mattersCzar’s fate became linked with fate of Russian armed forcesBad situation grew worse under Czar’s commandRussian army seemed doomedCentral Powers were able to stop Russian offensiveDestroyed Russian soldiers’ faith in leadershipArmy had little strength, even less confidenceConditions in Russia worse than on battlefieldFood, goods scarce; peasants grew desperateUnpopular Czarina relied on Grigory Rasputin, viewed as corrupt, immoralShaky support for Russian monarchy dipped even lower
6 How did World War I affect Russia? Find the Main IdeaHow did World War I affect Russia?Answer(s): poor economic conditions, worker strikes, unpopular czar
7 The Russian Revolution By the end of 1916, Russia was once again on the edge of a revolution. As the new year began and conditions in Russia continued to worsen, the Russian people clearly wanted a change.Citizens protested in streets of Petrograd, March 8, 1917Police, soldiers refused to shoot riotersGovernment was helplessRevolution BeginsOrdered legislature to disbandHis order defiedCitizens, government, military refused to obey CzarForced to abdicate, March 15, 1917Czar Nicholas IIMarch revolution known as February RevolutionRussian calendar at time 13 days behindNew calendar adopted, 1918Calendar Change
8 The Russian Revolution Provisional GovernmentDuma established temporary governmentLed by Aleksandr KerenskyMany unhappy with new leadershipBolsheviksLed opposition to Kerensky’s provisional governmentWanted fundamental change in government and societyPlanned Marxist revolutionBolshevismAbolish private propertyEnforce social equalityLater known as Marxism-LeninismVladimir LeninBolshevik leader forced to live outside RussiaReturned, April 1917Germany hoped Lenin would weaken Russian war effort
10 The Bolshevik Revolution Kerensky’s final offensive Kerensky ordered final military offensive against Central Powers along Eastern Front, mid-1917Drive failed and led to widespread rebellion in Russian armyWeakened Russian army collapsedConditions ideal for LeninArmed Bolshevik factory workers, Red Guard, attacked provisional government, November 1917Known as October RevolutionKerensky’s government collapsed after nearly bloodless struggleBolshevik takeoverEstablished radical Communist programMade private ownership of land illegalLand given to peasantsControl of factories given to workersLenin became leader
11 What were the main events of the Russian Revolution? SummarizeWhat were the main events of the Russian Revolution?Answer(s): the February Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution
12 Lenin sought to end Russian involvement in World War I After the RevolutionLenin sought to end Russian involvement in World War ISent Leon Trotsky to negotiate peace with Central PowersRussia’s army virtually powerlessTrotsky had to accept agreement harsh on RussiaRussia gained peace, gave up large parts of empire
13 Reaction to Treaty Civil War Bolsheviks’ acceptance of peace treaty angered many RussiansBolsheviks’ opponents organized the White ArmyWhite Army included army leaders, political opponents, wealthy Russians opposed to Communist systemCivil WarWhite Army received military help from France, U.S.Civil War raged for 3 years between Lenin’s Red Army and White ArmyMillions of Russians died in fighting, faminesBolsheviks finally triumphed, late 1920
14 New Economic Policy Collapsing economy Key points The Soviet Union Brought on by civil war, pushed Russia to edge of total ruinPeasants, workers especially hard hitLenin introduced New Economic Policy, 1921Key pointsNew Economic Policy permitted some capitalist activityPeasants could sell food at profitTried to encourage badly needed food productionThe Soviet UnionRussia reunited with several neighboring lands, became Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, dominated by Communist leadershipLenin’s death in 1924 led to struggle for control of Soviet Union
15 What events took place after the Russian Revolution? SequenceWhat events took place after the Russian Revolution?Answer(s): The Bolsheviks formed the Red Army which fought against the White Army. The White Army was made up of army leaders, political opponents of the Bolsheviks, and wealthy Russians.
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