4Bell Ringer April 8, 2015 What does B.R.A.T stand for? Write responses on your sheets
5B.R.A.T. B= Blamed Germany for Causing WWI R= Reparations had to be paid from Germany to Allied powersA= Army of Germany was reduced to 100,000 menT= Territories claimed by Germany in WWI were given back
7Bell ringer April 7, 2015Germany’s attacks on civilian ships were a part of a policy called __________________.In the early years of World War I, the United States was a _____________ country because President Wilson did not want to become involved with WWI
9German Offensive When: March 21, 1918 What: Do or die offensive. How: Used Big Bertha’swhich could firepound shells 75 miles.Offensive was stoppedbefore capturing Paris.
10“The Turning Point of WWI” 2nd Battle of the Marne“The Turning Point of WWI”Began July 15, 1918Germans retreat Aug. 3rd150,000 casualtiesAllies now on offensiveGermany seeks armistice
11Allies Counter Counterattack launched Sept. 1918 Allies break through Hindenburg Line Oct. 1918Allies move north toward Belgium to reclaim lost territoryAllies defeat Germans at French -German border.
12Problems for Central Powers Germany:Poor economy= no food, no suppliesRiots break out!Austria Hungary:Revolution erupts.The will to fight is lost
13PeaceNov. 11, Armistice is signedThe Great War is over!!!
14A Difficult PeacePresident Wilson’s Vision of World Peace: The Fourteen PointsIncluded:Reduction of WeaponsRight of all people to choose their own gov’tProposed forming a world organization to prevent aggression (war)
15Not all Allies agreeFrance- wanted to punish Germany and make them pay for warGreat Britain – wanted to punish Germany but not weaken them. Why?Italy- hoped to gain territory but they were ignored
16Treaty of Versailles Much closer to Clemenceau’s vision than Wilson’s 1. Germany forced to pay $ to war victims2. Germany forced to take full responsibility for war3. Designed to weaken Germany4. Limit size of military5. Germany gives back conquered lands to France and Russia
17B.R.A.T. B= Blamed Germany for Causing WWI R= Reparations had to be paid from Germany to Allied powersA= Army of Germany was reduced to 100,000 menT= Territories claimed by Germany in WWI were given back
18German Reaction German’s were furious and humiliated Forced to sign the treaty on JUNE 28, 1919Reparations cripple German economyBitterness would affect German politics in years to come
19League of Nations Organization of world governments proposed by Wilson Established by Treaty of Versailles
20Main Goals Encourage cooperation, keep peace between nations Germany excludedU.S. did not ratify treaty, not member, weakened League
21Other TreatiesTreaties with Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire…forced to break upNew countries emerge: Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Turkey
22Cost of WarHuman: 9 million in war, 50 million die because of a world wide flu outbreak of 1918Economic: destroyed European economies, US and Japan flourishPolitical Changes: Communism in Russia, new states arise due to falling empiresColonies change hands, specifically those owned by Germany
25After WWI, the US pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world After WWI, the US pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world. However, as a result of the national debate over the Versailles Treaty ratification and the League of Nations, the United States moved away from the role of peace keeper and limited its involvement in international affairs.