Presentation on theme: "The Road to Revolution Chapter 6 p. 156-185 Warm Up Activity Look at page 158 in your textbooks. Read the sequencing events section. Copy this graphic."— Presentation transcript:
The Road to Revolution Chapter 6 p
Warm Up Activity Look at page 158 in your textbooks. Read the sequencing events section. Copy this graphic organizer in your notebook. Start off with the Proclamation of We will revisit this later. Why did the Proclamation of 1763 anger the colonists? Was Britains increase in taxation the result of war debt, or was it an attempt to achieve greater control over the colonists? Explain your answer.
Tighter British Control REMEMBER--the American Revolution did not happen over night: It was a culmination of many events over a number of years! The colonists WERE British citizens--required to follow all British laws French and Indian War –At first, colonists were proud to fight side by side with their British brothers –When war ended, problems arose
Problems caused by French and Indian war 1. Britain wanted to govern the colonies and newly acquired territories the same way –This is after they allowed the colonies relative independence for over a hundred years--colonists felt their freedom was being limited 2. Proclamation of 1763 –Britain forbade the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains. This was Native American land-- wanted to prevent rebellion –Colonists wanted to move and make money. This upset the colonists who made investments in the Ohio River Valley-- Most ignored the law 3. Britain accumulated a huge war debt –Owed their own government and the Dutch: Total of million dollars!! –Expected the colonists to help pay this debt off
Proclamation of 1763
Britains Response Britain needed to enforce the laws the colonists were ignoring King George III--kept 10,000 soldiers in the colonies –Leftover from the F & I war –Main job--enforce the Proclamation and keep peace with the natives British parliament passed: Quartering Act –General Thomas Gage (commander and chief of British North American forces) could not get colonists to pay for supplies and housing for the troops
Quartering Act cont.. Parliament passed the law in 1765 Colonists were required to give up their quarters, or houses, to British soldiers –Also had to feed them, and provide them with supplies –Colonists did not like this law at all Can you blame them???
King George III
Britain Taxes the Colonists Taxes were nothing new to the colonists –Theyve paid taxes before –But, this was different In the past, the king would ask the colonists to pay taxes Now, Parliament voted to tax the Americans directly
Sugar Act 1764: Parliament passed this law Placed a tax on sugar, molasses Harsh punishment for those colonists who tried to avoid the tax –SMUGGLERS!!! Many colonists turned towards smuggling to avoid paying taxes This law angered the colonists –They did not have a say in this tax –Taxation without representation is tyranny! -James Otis The British reacted differently –Colonists were subjects of Britain, and subject to taxation
Stamp Act 1765: Parliament passed this act specifically for the American colonies This law required any printed paper to have an official stamp on it –Diplomas, contracts, wills, newspapers, books-- any printed paper –Had to pay for it in silver coins--silver was rare Totally new kind of tax for the colonists –They felt it was an attempt to quiet their right of speech –This tax hit all colonists--not just merchants
Colonists React The Sugar Act increased tensions between the British and Americans (and Americans and Americans) The Stamp Act forced the colonists to react They had no say, no representation in Parliament to speak on their behalf –But, they never really wanted a say or a voice..hmmmm –With representation in Parliament, there would be no need for Independence If Parliament could pass this, what else could they pass?? Some felt this way, others felt differently
Colonists React cont… Some colonists called for resistance to the tax –Patrick Henry--Virginia House of Burgesses –Samuel Adams--Massachusetts legislator Others felt that resistance was treason –After all, they were British citizens, required to follow British laws
Protests!!! Protests: colonial leaders felt they were being unfairly taxed by Parliament –Through songs, chants, posters, refusal to pay. –Some were peaceful, some were not Newspapers read, No taxation without representation! Stamp Act Congress –Met in NYC –Delegates wrote a petition to the king It said that colonists had the right to tax each other, not Parliament –1st time the colonies acted together Boycott: colonists refusal to buy English goods
Protests cont… Sons of Liberty –Secret organization formed to oppose British policies through protests Some protest were not peaceful –Started in NYC or Boston, Lawyers, merchants, craftsmen--workers and tradesmen Protested the Stamp Act Samuel Adams, and Paul Revere led the Mass. Sections –Non-violent protests Burned the stamped paper whenever they could Ignored the law, or refused to pay the tax –Violent protests Tarred and feathered royal tax collectors Vandalized their homes and possessions –By 1765, this group existed in all the colonies
Tarred and Feathered
Support From England William Pitt –Leader of Parliament –Spoke out against the Stamp Act –Supported the Americans –Page 162 Parliament??? –Repealed the Stamp Act in 1766 –Saw that it was a mistake –But…there was a catch Declaratory Act
Stamp Act Repealed
Law passed by Parliament in 1766 –Passed after the Stamp Act was repealed Stated that Parliament had supreme authority to govern the colonies. Colonists ignored this and celebrated their victory –Stamp Act repealed Declaratory Act continued the struggle for control –Parliament vs. Colonies
Stamp Act Satire
Satire 1. The dates on the skulls above the vault in which the coffin will be interred refer to uprisings by the Jacobites, supporters of King James after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, who continued to believe that the king's authority came from God, not Parliament. 2. The procession is led by Dr. William Scott, who, under the name Anti-Sejanus, published letters in support of the Stamp Act in London's Public Advertiser. He is followed by Solicitor-General Wedderburn and Attorney General Norton, mockingly referred to as "Two Pillars of the Law." They are followed by Lord Grenville, carrying the coffin, and Lord Bute, who, along with other ministers, is weeping. 3. In the background, A statue of William Pitt, celebrated as a defender of the colonists, is being loaded for sail to America on the ships in the harbor, Conway, Rockingham, and Grafton, ministers who had effected repeal of the Act. The numbers 122 and 250 on the small loading vessels refer to the votes for repeal in the House of Lords and House of Commons. 4. The numbers on the black flags, 71 and 122, refer to the number of votes against repeal of the Stamp Act in the House of Lords and Commons.