2Warm Up ActivityLook at page 158 in your textbooks. Read the sequencing events section.Copy this graphic organizer in your notebook. Start off with the Proclamation of We will revisit this later.Why did the Proclamation of 1763 anger the colonists?Was Britain’s increase in taxation the result of war debt, or was it an attempt to achieve greater control over the colonists? Explain your answer.
3Tighter British Control REMEMBER--the American Revolution did not happen over night: It was a culmination of many events over a number of years!The colonists WERE British citizens--required to follow all British lawsFrench and Indian WarAt first, colonists were proud to fight side by side with their British brothersWhen war ended, problems arose
4Problems caused by French and Indian war 1. Britain wanted to govern the colonies and newly acquired territories the same wayThis is after they allowed the colonies relative independence for over a hundred years--colonists felt their freedom was being limited2. Proclamation of 1763Britain forbade the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains. This was Native American land--wanted to prevent rebellionColonists wanted to move and make money. This upset the colonists who made investments in the Ohio River Valley--Most ignored the law3. Britain accumulated a huge war debtOwed their own government and the Dutch: Total of million dollars!!Expected the colonists to help pay this debt off
6Britain’s ResponseBritain needed to enforce the laws the colonists were ignoringKing George III--kept 10,000 soldiers in the coloniesLeftover from the F & I warMain job--enforce the Proclamation and keep peace with the nativesBritish parliament passed: Quartering ActGeneral Thomas Gage (commander and chief of British North American forces) could not get colonists to pay for supplies and housing for the troops
7Quartering Act cont.. Parliament passed the law in 1765 Colonists were required to give up their quarters, or houses, to British soldiersAlso had to feed them, and provide them with suppliesColonists did not like this law at allCan you blame them???
10Britain Taxes the Colonists Taxes were nothing new to the colonistsThey’ve paid taxes beforeBut, this was differentIn the past, the king would ask the colonists to pay taxesNow, Parliament voted to tax the “Americans” directly
11Sugar Act 1764: Parliament passed this law Placed a tax on sugar, molassesHarsh punishment for those colonists who tried to avoid the taxSMUGGLERS!!! Many colonists turned towards smuggling to avoid paying taxesThis law angered the colonistsThey did not have a say in this tax“Taxation without representation is tyranny!”-James OtisThe British reacted differentlyColonists were subjects of Britain, and subject to taxation
12Stamp Act1765: Parliament passed this act specifically for the American coloniesThis law required any printed paper to have an official stamp on itDiplomas, contracts, wills, newspapers, books--any printed paperHad to pay for it in silver coins--silver was rareTotally new kind of tax for the colonistsThey felt it was an attempt to quiet their right of speechThis tax hit all colonists--not just merchants
16Colonists ReactThe Sugar Act increased tensions between the British and Americans (and Americans and Americans)The Stamp Act forced the colonists to reactThey had no say, no representation in Parliament to speak on their behalfBut, they never really wanted a say or a voice..hmmmmWith representation in Parliament, there would be no need for IndependenceIf Parliament could pass this, what else could they pass??Some felt this way, others felt differently
17Colonists React cont… Some colonists called for resistance to the tax Patrick Henry--Virginia House of BurgessesSamuel Adams--Massachusetts legislatorOthers felt that resistance was treasonAfter all, they were British citizens, required to follow British laws
20Protests!!!Protests: colonial leaders felt they were being unfairly taxed by ParliamentThrough songs, chants, posters, refusal to pay.Some were peaceful, some were notNewspapers read, “No taxation without representation!”Stamp Act CongressMet in NYCDelegates wrote a petition to the kingIt said that colonists had the right to tax each other, not Parliament1st time the colonies acted togetherBoycott: colonists refusal to buy English goods
21Protests cont… Sons of Liberty Secret organization formed to oppose British policies through protestsSome protest were not peacefulStarted in NYC or Boston,Lawyers, merchants, craftsmen--workers and tradesmenProtested the Stamp ActSamuel Adams, and Paul Revere led the Mass. SectionsNon-violent protestsBurned the stamped paper whenever they couldIgnored the law, or refused to pay the taxViolent protestsTarred and feathered royal tax collectorsVandalized their homes and possessionsBy 1765, this group existed in all the colonies
24Support From England William Pitt Parliament??? Declaratory Act Leader of ParliamentSpoke out against the Stamp ActSupported the AmericansPage 162Parliament???Repealed the Stamp Act in 1766Saw that it was a mistakeBut…there was a catchDeclaratory Act
26Declaratory Act Law passed by Parliament in 1766 Passed after the Stamp Act was repealedStated that Parliament had “supreme authority to govern the colonies.”Colonists ignored this and celebrated their victoryStamp Act repealedDeclaratory Act continued the struggle for controlParliament vs. Colonies
28Satire1. The dates on the skulls above the vault in which the coffin will be interred refer to uprisings by the Jacobites, supporters of King James after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, who continued to believe that the king's authority came from God, not Parliament.2. The procession is led by Dr. William Scott, who, under the name Anti-Sejanus, published letters in support of the Stamp Act in London's Public Advertiser. He is followed by Solicitor-General Wedderburn and Attorney General Norton, mockingly referred to as "Two Pillars of the Law." They are followed by Lord Grenville, carrying the coffin, and Lord Bute, who, along with other ministers, is weeping.3. In the background, A statue of William Pitt, celebrated as a defender of the colonists, is being loaded for sail to America on the ships in the harbor, Conway, Rockingham, and Grafton, ministers who had effected repeal of the Act. The numbers 122 and 250 on the small loading vessels refer to the votes for repeal in the House of Lords and House of Commons.4. The numbers on the black flags, 71 and 122, refer to the number of votes against repeal of the Stamp Act in the House of Lords and Commons.