Presentation on theme: "El presente del subjuntivo con las cláusulas nominales Present subjunctive with noun clauses."— Presentation transcript:
El presente del subjuntivo con las cláusulas nominales Present subjunctive with noun clauses
What is this? This is fancy grammar talk for a sentence with at least 2 clauses; the verb in the first (or main) clause determines whether or not the verb in the second (or dependent, subordinate etc.) clause is subjunctive. If the verb in the first clause fits into any of several categories such as doubt, emotion, will/wish/want/desire, judgment/opinion, negation and several more (just deal with it), then the verb in the second clause is subjunctive. – Ejemplo: I want you to learn. Quiero que aprendas. The second clause is called the noun clause because it functions like a noun; it is the object of the first verb (what you hope, wish, doubt etc.)
If the verb in the second clause has the same subject (yo, tú, ellos, Juan) as the verb in the first clause, you dont use que and you dont conjugate the second verb. – Ejemplo: Juan wants to learn Juan quiere aprender.
When do you use this? Again, whenever you want to say that someone or something wants or wishes or hopes or doubts or doesnt believe or doesnt think or its not possible or it is possible or etc. that someone or something else does or is something.
Or, look at it this way, with the help of 3 cutesy acronyms: If the verb in the main clause falls into one these categories the second verb is subjunctive: NecessityJudgmentWishes UncertaintyEmotionEmotion DesireDesireDesire EmotionInfluenceDoubt Impersonal expressions (es necesario que…) Negation God grant (ojalá…)
Examples Ojalá vengas a la fiesta. Quiero que Marcos me llame. Yo dudo que salgas tan temprano. Es posible que no me gusten.
What does a subjunctive verb mean in English? Aprendes = You learn Aprendas = You learn – Say what? Then how is it different? – Answer: it just feels different to a native speaker.
How do you conjugate the subjunctive? Put the verb in the yo form of the present Take off the –o Add these endings: -ar -er / -ir e emos a amos es as e en a an
Stem-changing (boot verbs) Boot verbs in the present are also boot verbs in the present subjunctive – poder puedapodamos puedas puedapuedan
UNLESS Its an –ir boot verb; in this case the nosotros form gets the same change as the él and ellos (3rd person) forms in the preterit: – dormir duermadurmamos duermas duermaduerman
-CAR / -GAR / -ZAR These verbs get the same spelling change as with the preterit, but no accent – tocar toque etc. – pagar pague etc. – empezar empiece etc.
Irregulars Dar dé, des, dé, demos, den Ir vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayan Ser sea, seas, sea, seamos, sean Haber haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan Estar esté, estés, esté, estemos, estén Saber sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepan
Conjugate these verbs in the present subjunctive, now, you! poner hacer jugar roncar destruir decir
Subjunctive in English The subjunctive still lives in English, although its hanging on for dear life, and we may just put it out of its misery soon enough. It uses the infinitive form of the verb for the 3rd person singular subject (he, she, it) after clauses with similar meanings to the ones in Spanish that introduce the subjunctive: – Its necessary that he learn the lesson. – Its important that Juan be here on time. Sound weird? Thats because we are in the process of murdering the subjunctive in English. You still have to learn it in Spanish, though.
And if youre the type of person that needs and can use this, here: THESE WORDS ALWAYS INTRODUCE THE SUBJUNCTIVE aconsejar que-to advise that alegrarse de que -to be happy that dejar que-to let/allow that desear que-to wish that dudar que-to doubt that (me) emociona que -(Im) excited that (me) encanta que – (I) love that (me) enfada que - (Im) angry that (me) enoja que – (Im) angry that esperar que- to hope that estar orgulloso de que – to be proud that exigir que-to demand that (me) extraña que – It seems strange that (me) gusta que – (I) like that
Más impedir (i) que-to impede insistir en que-to insist on (me) irrita que – (Im) irritated that lamentar que- to lament that mandar que-to order that (me) molesta que – (Im) bothered that necesitar que-to need negar que - to deny that ojalá que -hopefully oponerse a que-to oppose pedir (i) que-to ask that permitir que-to permit that preferir (ie) que-to prefer that prohibir que- to prohibit querer (ie) que-to want recomendar (ie) que -to recommend that rogar (ue) que-to beg that sentir (ie) que – to regret that (me) sorprende que – (Im) surprised that sugerir (ie) que-to suggest that suplicar que-to beg that temer que – to fear that tener miedo de que – to be scared that
Y más THESE IMPERSONAL EXPRESSIONS ALWAYS INTRODUCE THE SUBJUNCITVE es absurdo que - its absurd that es agradable que- its agreeable that es bueno que- its good that es dudoso que- its doubtful that es escandaloso que- its scandalous that es importante que- its important that es imposible que- its impossible that es improbable que- its improbable that es indispensable que- its indispensable that es inútil que- its useless that es justo que- its right / just that es malo que- its bad that es mejor que- its better that es necesario que- its necessary that es peor que- its worse that es posible que- its possible that es probable que- its probable that es raro que- its rare that es ridículo que- its ridiculous that es sorprendente que- its surprising that es triste que- its sad that es una lástima que- its a shame that es útil que- its useful that más vale que- its better that no es que- its not that no es cierto que- its not certain that no es evidente que- its not evident that no es obvio que- its not obvious that no es verdad que- its not true that ojalá que- hopefully
Not subjunctive THESE WORDS ALWAYS INTRODUCE THE INDICATIVE aprender que-to learn that comprender que-to understand that creer que-to believe that darse cuenta de que-to realize that entender que-to understand that estar cierto que -to be certain that estar seguro que-to be sure that oír que-to hear that opinar que-to think (opine) that parecer que-to seem that pensar que- to think that saber que-to know that ver que-to see that