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El imperfecto del subjuntivo con las cláusulas nominales

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1 El imperfecto del subjuntivo con las cláusulas nominales
Past (Imperfect) subjunctive with noun clauses

2 What is this? This is fancy grammar talk for a sentence with at least 2 clauses; the verb in the first (or main) clause determines whether or not the verb in the second (or dependent, subordinate etc.) clause is subjunctive. If the verb in the first clause fits into any of several categories such as doubt, emotion, will/wish/want/desire, judgment/opinion, negation and several more (just deal with it), then the verb in the second clause is subjunctive. Ejemplo: I wanted you to learn. Yo quería que aprendieras. The second clause is called the noun clause because it functions like a noun; it is the object of the first verb (what you hope, wish, doubt etc.)

3 If the verb in the second clause has the same subject (yo, tú, ellos, Juan) as the verb in the first clause, you don’t use que and you don’t conjugate the second verb. Ejemplo: Juan wanted to learn Juan quería aprender.

4 When do you use this? Again, whenever you want to say that someone or something wanted or wished or hoped or doubted or didn’t believe or didn’t think or it was not possible or it was possible or etc. that someone or something else did or was something.

5 Or, look at it this way, with the help of 3 cutesy acronyms:
If the verb in the main clause falls into one these categories the second verb is subjunctive: Necessity Judgment Wishes Uncertainty Emotion Emotion Desire Desire Desire Emotion Influence Doubt Impersonal expressions (“es necesario que…”) Negation God grant (“ojalá…”)

6 Examples “Ojalá vinieras a la fiesta.”
“Yo quería que Marcos me llamara.” “Yo dudaba que salieras tan temprano.” “Era posible que no me gustaran.”

7 What does a subjunctive verb mean in English?
Aprendiste = You learned Aprendieras = You learned Say what? Then how is it different? Answer: it just feels different to a native speaker.

8 How do you conjugate the past subjunctive?
Put the verb in the ellos form of the preterit Take off the –ron Add these endings: -ar / -er / -ir -ra -ramos -ras -ran

9 For some reason, these endings also exist (but seem to be less common)
-semos -ses -sen

10 The letter in front of –ramos always gets an accent
Ejemplo: Le gustó que tocáramos bien.

11 There are no irregulars in the past subjunctive!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*
*As long as you know all the preterit verb forms, you’ll do great

12 Conjugate and define these verbs in the past subjunctive, now, you!
Leer Sentir Dormir Reírse Zambullir Estar Ser Decir

13 And if you’re the type of person that needs and can use this, here:
THESE WORDS ALWAYS INTRODUCE THE SUBJUNCTIVE aconsejar que -to advise that alegrarse de que -to be happy that dejar que -to let/allow that desear que -to wish that dudar que -to doubt that (me) emociona que -(I’m) excited that (me) encanta que – (I) love that (me) enfada que - (I’m) angry that (me) enoja que – (I’m) angry that esperar que - to hope that estar orgulloso de que – to be proud that exigir que -to demand that (me) extraña que – It seems strange that (me) gusta que – (I) like that

14 Más impedir (i) que -to impede insistir en que -to insist on
(me) irrita que – (I’m) irritated that lamentar que - to lament that mandar que -to order that (me) molesta que – (I’m) bothered that necesitar que -to need negar que to deny that ojalá que hopefully oponerse a que -to oppose pedir (i) que -to ask that permitir que -to permit that preferir (ie) que -to prefer that prohibir que - to prohibit querer (ie) que -to want recomendar (ie) que to recommend that rogar (ue) que -to beg that sentir (ie) que – to regret that (me) sorprende que – (I’m) surprised that sugerir (ie) que -to suggest that suplicar que -to beg that temer que – to fear that tener miedo de que – to be scared that

es absurdo que it’s absurd that es agradable que - it’s agreeable that es bueno que - it’s good that es dudoso que - it’s doubtful that es escandaloso que - it’s scandalous that es importante que - it’s important that es imposible que - it’s impossible that es improbable que - it’s improbable that es indispensable que - it’s indispensable that es inútil que - it’s useless that es justo que - it’s right / just that es malo que - it’s bad that es mejor que - it’s better that es necesario que - it’s necessary that es peor que - it’s worse that es posible que - it’s possible that es probable que - it’s probable that es raro que - it’s rare that es ridículo que - it’s ridiculous that es sorprendente que - it’s surprising that es triste que - it’s sad that es una lástima que - it’s a shame that es útil que - it’s useful that más vale que - it’s better that no es que - it’s not that no es cierto que - it’s not certain that no es evidente que - it’s not evident that no es obvio que - it’s not obvious that no es verdad que - it’s not true that ojalá que - hopefully

aprender que -to learn that comprender que -to understand that creer que -to believe that darse cuenta de que -to realize that entender que -to understand that estar cierto que -to be certain that estar seguro que -to be sure that oír que -to hear that opinar que -to think (opine) that parecer que -to seem that pensar que - to think that saber que -to know that ver que -to see that

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