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El subjuntivo An introduction to the subjunctive MOOD.

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1 El subjuntivo An introduction to the subjunctive MOOD

2 TENSE VS. MOOD Verbs are classified by tense and mood. Verbs are classified by tense and mood. Tense shows the time of action (present, past, etc.) Tense shows the time of action (present, past, etc.) Mood shows the attitude of the speaker toward the action or the situation. Mood shows the attitude of the speaker toward the action or the situation. Mood tenses are indicative, subjunctive (subj.), and imperative. Mood tenses are indicative, subjunctive (subj.), and imperative.

3 The Basics #1 The subj. is not used often in English. IndicativeSubjunctive You are early Its necessary that you be early He speaks Spanish I insist that he speak Spanish She eats well We prefer that she eat well.

4 The Basics #2 The subj. occurs in dependent clauses that are joined to the independent (main) clause by que (that). The subj. occurs in dependent clauses that are joined to the independent (main) clause by que (that).ejemplo: Es preciso que estés temprano. It is necessary that you be early.

5 The Basics #3 The indicative mood is objective and is used to speak about facts and certainties. The indicative mood is objective and is used to speak about facts and certainties. The subjunctive mood is subjective and is used to express emotions, doubt, feelings, hopes, wishes, requests, suggestions, preferences, persuasions, etc. in the main clause. The subjunctive mood is subjective and is used to express emotions, doubt, feelings, hopes, wishes, requests, suggestions, preferences, persuasions, etc. in the main clause.

6 Examples IndicativeSubjunctive Habla español. Estoy Feliz de que hable español. Come mucho. Duda que coma mucho. No vive bien. Siento que no viva bien. Son profesores. Espero que sean profesores.

7 The Basics #4 Common misconception: Common misconception: Que is always followed by the subjunctive. Que is always followed by the subjunctive. Not true! Only true when the main clause expresses emotion, hope, denial, etc. Not true! Only true when the main clause expresses emotion, hope, denial, etc. Ejemplo: Ejemplo: indicativesubjunctive Sé que está aquí Espero que esté aquí I know that she is here I hope that she is here.

8 Formation and conjugation Regular verbs: The rule of thumb is add the opposite! -ar verbs use –er endings Hablar = hable, hables, hable, hablemos, hablen -er/-ir verbs use –ar endings Comer = coma, comas, coma, comamos, coman Vivir = viva, vivas, viva, vivamos, vivan

9 Formation Stem-changing verbs Stem-changing verbs -ar & -er verbs have the same stem change. -ar & -er verbs have the same stem change. -ir verbs have the same stem change except the nosotros/vosotros forms change as well. -ir verbs have the same stem change except the nosotros/vosotros forms change as well. e ipedir = pidamos oudormir = durmamos

10 Formation Irregular verbs: Irregular verbs: Drop the –o in the yo form and add the opposite ending. Drop the –o in the yo form and add the opposite ending. Hacer: haga, hagas …Decir: diga, digas … Poner: ponga, pongas …Venir: venga, vengas … Tener: tenga, tengas …Salir: salga, salgas … Caer: caiga, caigas …Traer: traiga, traigas … Huir: huya, huyas …Ver: vea, veas … Oír: oiga, oigas …ser: sea, seas … Ir: vaya, vayas …haber: haya, hayas … Dar*: dé, des, dé …estar*: esté, estés … Saber: sepa, sepas … *accents are important!

11 Remember W.E.I.R.D.O W = wishing, wanting, will (querer, esperar, desear) E = emotions (any emotions) I = imperative, impersonal (es …que…) R = request, reaction D = doubt, denial (dudar, negar, no creer) O = Ojalá (I hope)


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