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Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State. Why Bill of Rights? All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution All thirteen states had to ratify.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State. Why Bill of Rights? All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution All thirteen states had to ratify."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State

2 Why Bill of Rights? All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution Nine states needed to reset the country, canceling out the Articles of Confederation Nine states needed to reset the country, canceling out the Articles of Confederation Conservative document that prevented the mob from controlling government Conservative document that prevented the mob from controlling government Was a surprise to the public Was a surprise to the public

3 Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists Anti-Federalists States rights States rights Backcountry dwellers Backcountry dwellers Small farmers Small farmers Debtors Debtors S. Adams, P. Henry, Richard Henry Lee S. Adams, P. Henry, Richard Henry Lee Federalists Strong federal gov. Seaboard dwellers Wealthy and better educated Controlled the press (The Federalist Papers) G. Washington, B. Franklin, Madison, Hamilton, Jay

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5 Election of 1789 Electors cast two votes for President Electors cast two votes for President Each elector selected Washington w/ at least one Each elector selected Washington w/ at least one NC and RI hadnt ratified the Constitution NC and RI hadnt ratified the Constitution NY had problems deciding how electors would be chosen NY had problems deciding how electors would be chosen

6 Executive Branch ( ) Cabinet not outlined in the Constitution – a Washington Invention John Jay named 1 st Chief Justice of the five member Supreme Court

7 Congress at work… James Madison sought to protect the Constitution and win over the anti-Feds James Madison sought to protect the Constitution and win over the anti-Feds What he develops becomes known as the Bill of Rights (he is the father of) What he develops becomes known as the Bill of Rights (he is the father of) One of the first acts done by the new Federal Government One of the first acts done by the new Federal Government Judiciary Act (1789) organizes the Supreme Court Judiciary Act (1789) organizes the Supreme Court

8 Alexander Hamilton Not a natural citizen (born in the Caribbean) Federalist / aide to Wash in AR Arch rival: Jefferson Father of the National Debt Assumption fight and compromise Debt was a national blessing Bank of the United States

9 National Debt structure Debt owed to Foreigners $11,710,000 Federal Debt $42,414,000 State Debt $21,500,000 Miscellaneous Revenue Customs Duties (tariffs) Excise Revenue (Whiskey, etc.)

10 Whiskey Rebellion (1794) PA farmers not happy with tariff PA farmers not happy with tariff Launch an insurrection Launch an insurrection Washington personally leads militia into PA to restore order (direct opposite of Shays Rebellion) Washington personally leads militia into PA to restore order (direct opposite of Shays Rebellion) Represents peaceful dialogue over violence in order to change policy Represents peaceful dialogue over violence in order to change policy

11 What caused parties to form? Arguments over the French Revolution and American Foreign Policy

12 Political Rivalries Democrat-Republicans States rights (local) States rights (local) Strict construction view Strict construction view Agriculture based Agriculture based Rule of the people Rule of the people Backed France Backed France Support in S and W Support in S and W Jefferson and Madison key supporters Jefferson and Madison key supporters Federalists Federal rights Loose construction view Industrial based Avoid mob rule / elites Backed England Support in NE J. Adams and Hamilton key supporters

13 Washingtons Farewell Address Beware of entangling alliances… …because they will get us involved in other peoples wars.

14 Rating the Presidents More notable American rather than President More notable American rather than President Extremely popular at the time Extremely popular at the time Sets the bar for what a Pres. does Sets the bar for what a Pres. does Foreign policy of neutrality Foreign policy of neutrality Prevents a backslide of revolutionary ideals Prevents a backslide of revolutionary ideals

15 Election of 1796 President and V.P. come from different parties for 1 st time President and V.P. come from different parties for 1 st time MD split the vote between the two MD split the vote between the two Other candidates vote count not depicted Other candidates vote count not depicted

16 President John Adams Jays Treaty with England angers D-R and France. Jays Treaty with England angers D-R and France. Adams not well liked and comes to power in a very close, bitter election Adams not well liked and comes to power in a very close, bitter election Stuck between neo-Federalists led by Hamilton (not pro-British enough) and Jeffersons D-R (anti-British) Stuck between neo-Federalists led by Hamilton (not pro-British enough) and Jeffersons D-R (anti-British) France reacts by seizing American vessels at sea (300 by 1797) France reacts by seizing American vessels at sea (300 by 1797)

17 Quasi-War w/ France ( ) John Marshall is sent to France to negotiate w/ Talleyrand John Marshall is sent to France to negotiate w/ Talleyrand X Y Z

18 Quasi-War brought to you by the letters X, Y, and Z They ask for a $250,000 bribe just to talk to Talleyrand They ask for a $250,000 bribe just to talk to Talleyrand Marshall refuses and returns to America Marshall refuses and returns to America Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute Adams avoids war by appealing to new French ruler Napoleon Adams avoids war by appealing to new French ruler Napoleon Convention of 1800 = divorce w/ Fr. Convention of 1800 = divorce w/ Fr.

19 Alien and Sedition Acts Federalists during war fervor pass laws to silence the opposition (D-R) Federalists during war fervor pass laws to silence the opposition (D-R) Alien Act Alien Act Naturalization from 5 to 14 yrs Naturalization from 5 to 14 yrs President can jail or deport in time of war President can jail or deport in time of war Sedition Act Sedition Act Impeding policies of the government = jail Impeding policies of the government = jail Attacking officials in press = jail and fine Attacking officials in press = jail and fine

20 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts Reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts Jefferson writes for Kentucky Jefferson writes for Kentucky Madison writes for Virginia Madison writes for Virginia Develops the idea of nullification Develops the idea of nullification The States have the right to ignore laws that the Federal Government oversteps its authority on The States have the right to ignore laws that the Federal Government oversteps its authority on Constitutional issues were later a right the Supreme Court adopts in Constitutional issues were later a right the Supreme Court adopts in 1803.

21 John Adams Extremely disliked at the time / abrasive personality Extremely disliked at the time / abrasive personality Doesnt get caught up in war fever and does what was best for the country Doesnt get caught up in war fever and does what was best for the country Splits his party and loses in close election to Jefferson Splits his party and loses in close election to Jefferson Election of 1800 first peaceful transfer of power Election of 1800 first peaceful transfer of power


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