Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Essential Question Essential Question: –What important precedents & events defined the presidencies of Washington & John Adams? Warm-Up Question: Warm-Up.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Essential Question Essential Question: –What important precedents & events defined the presidencies of Washington & John Adams? Warm-Up Question: Warm-Up."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Question Essential Question: –What important precedents & events defined the presidencies of Washington & John Adams? Warm-Up Question: Warm-Up Question: –Examine the document on the next slide & answer the questions

2 Use this image to search for clues: According to the image, what was Washington “first” at? Why was George Washington an important president? What is a precedent?

3 1. George Washington 2. John Adams 3. Thomas Jefferson 4. James Madison 5. James Monroe 6. John Q. Adams 7. Andrew Jackson When the Constitution was ratified in 1789, George Washington was elected America’s 1 st president: –He was the unanimous choice for president –Washington helped shape the new nation & created precedents for future presidents & leaders

4 Washington’s 1 st Term:

5 Washington as President During his 1 st term, Washington helped shape the new nation: Judiciary Act of 1789 –He approved the Judiciary Act of 1789 which created federal courts –Congress created the Treasury, State, War, Justice Departments –Created the 1 st cabinet (group of advisors who head departments) –Focused on the U.S. economy

6

7 Washington’s Cabinet Henry Knox, Secretary of War Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of Treasury Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State George Washington, President Edmund Randolph, Attorney General

8 Hamilton & Jefferson were the most influential of the cabinet members but they had different views on the role of gov’t for the new nation

9 Comparing the Ideals of Hamilton & Jefferson Comparing the Ideals of Hamilton & Jefferson Activity

10 Hamilton vs. Jefferson: The Nature of Human BeingsHamilton People are motivated by self-interests Only the “elite” should governJefferson The “common” man can make good decisions Corruption occurs when power is in the hands of the “elite”

11 Hamilton vs. Jefferson: The Best Type of GovernmentHamilton Powerful national government Articles of Confederation was too weakJefferson Power should remain with state governments Keep the national gov’t small

12 Hamilton vs. Jefferson: Political Party & Its IdeasHamilton Federalist Strong national government & fewer states rightsJefferson Republican (Democratic- Republican) Limited national government & more states rights

13 Hamilton vs. Jefferson: Ideal EconomyHamilton Economy based on industryJefferson Economy based on small, independent farmers

14 Hamilton vs. Jefferson: View on the ConstitutionHamilton Supported the Constitution Constitution can be “loosely” interpreted with the “necessary & proper” clauseJefferson Supported the Constitution because of the Bill of Rights Constitution should be strictly interpreted Powers not given to the national gov’t are reserved for state gov’ts

15 Thomas Jefferson Jefferson feared a strong national gov’t & wanted power left to the states in order to protect liberty: –He saw America as a nation of farmer-citizens & feared rule by the “wealthy elite” –As Sec of State, Jefferson favored close ties with France, especially when the French Revolution began in 1789

16 Alexander Hamilton Hamilton thought a strong national gov’t was best for America: –Hamilton wanted leaders to come from the “educated elite” –He wanted the U.S. to develop like England (trade & industry) –As Sec of Treasury, he created a Financial Plan to grow U.S. industry, pay off national debts, & expand the economy

17

18 Hamilton’s Financial Plan Components of the Financial Plan: 1.The national gov’t should take all the state debts (assumption) & pay them off at full value (funding) 2.Create a “Bank of the U.S.” to regulate American currency 3.Create a “protective tariff” on British manufactured goods to get people to buy American goods Funding & assumption passed, but only after a deal was made with Southern states to move the national capital to Virginia (Washington D.C.) Jefferson opposed the “BUS” because it would give too much power to bankers & the Constitution did not give Congress the power to create a national bank It passed when Hamilton used the “Elastic Clause” (Article 1, Section 8) to argue that the bank was “necessary & proper” This was the only part of Hamilton’s financial plan that was not approved

19 Disagreements between Hamilton & Jefferson led to the 1 st American political parties

20 Essential Question Essential Question: –What important precedents & events defined the presidencies of Washington & John Adams? Warm-Up Question: Warm-Up Question: –What were the major components of Hamilton's Financial Plan? –What were the key ideas of the Democratic-Republican & Federalist Parties? –What is the difference between a “Federalist” in 1787 & in 1790?

21 Washington’s 2 nd Term:

22 Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Washington faced a big challenge in 1794 with the Whiskey Rebellion: –7,000 farmers marched on Pittsburgh to protest a whiskey tax –Washington viewed the protest as a threat to safety & led the U.S. army to put down the rebellion –With the Constitution, the national gov’t was strong enough to end the threat (the gov’t of the Articles couldn’t end Shays’ Rebellion)

23 The presence of Washington & 13,000 soldiers was enough to end the Whiskey Rebellion

24 American Neutrality Washington faced another serious challenge when war broke out between England & France in 1793 Americans were divided: –Hamilton supported Britain –Jefferson supported France Proclamation of Neutrality In 1793, Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality because the best way to protect American interests was to stay out of the fight Why would some Americans want to support France? Why would some Americans want to support Britain?

25 The French Revolution led to war between England & France

26 Washington's Farewell Address two-term precedent In 1796, Washington chose not to run for a 3 rd term; This created the two-term precedent for presidents Farewell Address Washington’s Farewell Address: –Warned against political parties –Warned against “entangling alliances” with foreign nations (led to the precedent of non- intervention in foreign affairs)

27 The Adams Presidency

28 1. George Washington 2. John Adams 3. Thomas Jefferson 4. James Madison 5. James Monroe 6. John Q. Adams 7. Andrew Jackson Former vice-president John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson in the presidential election of 1796 Former VP John Adams (Federalist) Thomas Jefferson (Republican)

29 The Adams Presidency The war between England & France caused Adams problems: –France was mad that we did not ally with them to fight England & started to seize merchant ships –Adams sent diplomats to France but 3 unnamed French officials (“X”, “Y”, “Z” ) demand bribes XYZ Affair –Many thought the XYZ Affair was reason to go to war with France, but Adams kept his cool “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”

30 The Alien and Sedition Acts Adams’ handling of the conflict with France led to criticisms from the Democratic-Republicans Alien & Sedition Acts The Federalists in Congress passed the Alien & Sedition Acts: –Made it a crime to criticize the president or gov’t leaders –This attack on free speech backfired & badly damaged the Federalist Party & Adams

31 Virginia & Kentucky Resolves Virginia & Kentucky Resolves Jefferson & James Madison were outraged & wrote the Virginia & Kentucky Resolves in : –Presented a “states’ rights” argument suggesting that states could ignore (nullify) national laws that they viewed as unfair –The “states’ rights” & “nullification” arguments will be used by the South to secede from the USA during the Civil War in

32 The “Revolution of 1800” By 1800, President Adams & the Federalist Party were wounded: –Jefferson defeated Adams for the presidency beginning nearly 30 years of dominance by the Democratic-Republicans –This election marked the first time power was transferred from one party to another

33

34 Closure Activity ??


Download ppt "Essential Question Essential Question: –What important precedents & events defined the presidencies of Washington & John Adams? Warm-Up Question: Warm-Up."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google