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Launching the New Government

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1 Launching the New Government
Ch. 9 U.S. History


3 George Washington’s Presidency
April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President. John Adams (Mass.) becomes the Vice-President.

4 Inauguration Ceremony in which President take the oath of office

5 Washington sets precedents
As 1st U.S. President, Washington establishes many governmental precedents. PRECEDENT: an act or decision that sets an example for others to follow.

6 Court System Established
Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts.

7 The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. Currently we have 9 total justices. Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.

8 Presidential Cabinet Created
Cabinet: Group of department leaders who serve the President. The first Presidential Cabinet had four departments

9 First Presidential Cabinet
Secretary of War Henry Knox oversaw the nation’s defenses.

10 First Presidential Cabinet
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson oversaw the relations between the U.S. and other countries.

11 First Presidential Cabinet
Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton managed the government’s money.

12 First Presidential Cabinet
Attorney General Edmond Randolph advised the government on legal matters.

13 National Debt National Debt: amount of money a government owes to others.

14 Hamilton’s Financial Plan
Hamilton’s primary goal as Secretary of the Treasury was to reduce the national debt.

15 Hamilton’s Financial Plan
Alexander Hamilton believed that the federal government should be stronger than the state governments.

16 Hamilton’s Financial Plan
Pay off the war debt to develop the trust of other nations for trade. He wanted to buy up Revolutionary War bonds and reissue new ones.

17 Hamilton’s Financial Plan
B. Raise the federal government’s revenues through tariffs and taxes. TARIFFS – a tax on imported goods.

18 Whiskey Rebellion Hamilton wanted to tax liquor to raise money.
Backcountry PA corn farmers protested and refused to pay the tax. Washington sent militia to put down rebellion.

19 Whiskey Rebellion The rebellion tested the will of the new government.
Washington showed that the new government would act firmly in crisis and violence would not be tolerated.

20 French Revolution After the American Revolution, the French also fought for liberty and equality. But the Revolution grew violent. Radicals in France executed thousands in the name of reform.

21 Ouch! King Louis XVI

22 French Revolution Thomas Jefferson believed that the violence of the revolution was justified.

23 French Revolution Washington did not want to disrupt the U.S. relations with other countries and wanted to remain neutral. Neutrality – a decision not to take sides in a war

24 Neutrality Proclamation
Proclamation declared that the United States would remain independent from disputes between other nations.

25 Neutrality Proclamation
Difficult to maintain neutrality because American merchants profited from trade with Britain and France.

26 Neutrality Proclamation
U.S. neutrality was challenged because Britain and France seized cargoes from U.S. ships. Frigate: a ship that sails fast and has many guns

27 Jay’s Treaty Chief Justice John Jay negotiated a treaty with the British Treaty called for Britain to pay damages for seized American ships.

28 National Unity Threatened
American leaders formed political parties to organize support for their views. Americans saw political parties as a threat to national unity.

29 National Unity Threatened
Faction: opposing groups within parties Factions began to grow around Cabinet members Hamilton and Jefferson

30 National Unity Threatened
Hamilton and his supporters wanted a strong federal government. These Federalists drew support from the North.

31 National Unity Threatened
Jefferson believed a strong national government threatened the rights of states. His supporters were Democratic Republicans and included farmers, artisans and wealthy planters.

32 Adams is Elected President
1796: John Adams becomes the 2nd President of the U.S. A Federalist, he won the office over Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson became Vice President.

33 War Avoided President Adams strengthened the navy to keep the nation out of war. Adams resisted war fever and avoided armed conflict.

34 Federalist Party Splits
Hamilton disagreed with Adams over whether the U.S. should go to war. The Federalist Party split as a result of continuing diplomatic talks with France.

35 Alien and Sedition Acts
During crisis with France, the Federalist Party pushed laws through Congress. President could expel any alien, or foreigner, thought to be dangerous to the country.

36 Alien and Sedition Acts
Law made it harder for immigrants to become citizens. Sedition: stirring up rebellion against a government Citizens could be fined or jailed for criticism of government

37 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Certain states challenged the Sedition Act in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Thomas Jefferson help pass the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

38 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions claimed that states can judge whether a law is constitutional.

39 Good Luck on the Test!

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