Presentation on theme: "The New Republic 1789-1824 The Presidencies of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe."— Presentation transcript:
1The New RepublicThe Presidencies of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe
2America in 1790 1790 census – 4 million What percent lived on farms? Five biggest cities –What did they have in common?Public debt in 1790What is the big deal with our currency?
3Washington’s Administration ElectionCabinetWhere in the Constitution does it mention the Cabinet?Who were the members of the first Cabinet?State, Treasury, War, Attorney General
4Washington established many governmental precedents. PRECEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.
5Shows use of “implied powers” Created by Washington First 4 departments1) Secretary of State- Thomas Jeffersonforeign affairs2) Secretary of Treasury- Alexander Hamiltonmoney3) Secretary of War- Henry Knoxmilitary4) Attorney General- Edmund Randolphjustice/law
6Establishment of the Court System Federal Judiciary Act of 1789passed by CongressCreated an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts.US Supreme Court=a Chief Justice and 5 associate justices. (Today we have 9).Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
7Hamilton’s Economic Plan Believed if government favored the wealthy, in the long run all would benefit=stronger country “trickle down” theoryAlso believed that support from the wealthy would create a strong central governmentAssumption Bill-wanted Congress to assume debts accumulated by the national government and statesBelieved tariffs needed to get money to pay off debt (taxed 7 cents a gallon)Favored a National Bank
13Issue of Banks and Constitution Hamilton v. Jefferson Said what the Constitution did not forbid it permittedStated congress can pass any laws “necessary and proper”If the national gov. was to collect taxes and trade it needed a bank“loose construction”Said the constitution had no written authority to est. a bankSaid it must then reside w/ states (10th Amendment)“Strict construction”
28Washington leaves office Leaves after 2nd term (retires)Federalists back John Adams (Washington’s VP)Democratic-Republicans back Thomas JeffersonAdams won 71 to 68 Electoral Votes
29Adams Administration Aristocrat Harvard Education Did not appeal to the masses
301796 JOHN ADAMS ELECTED 2ND PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES XYZ Affair – 1798 – French wanted bribes to negotiate with AmericaAlien and Sedition Acts – 1798 – allowed the President to deport foreign citizens and made it illegal to criticize government policies.1796
31XYZ AffairAdams sent an envoy to help fix relations w/ France headed by John MarshallInstead of meeting the French Minister he met X,Y and ZAsked for 32 million florins and another 250,000 dollars in order for the Americans to speak to Talleyrand.Marshall refused and the U.S. prepared for war
32“Millions for Defense” Navy Department created (expanded from its 3 ships)Marine Corps reestablishedNew army of 10,000 men
33The Little man and America 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte becomes new French MinisterAdams sends envoys to FranceTreaty of Convention peacetime military alliance between the twoU.S. agreed to pay damage claims of American Shippers
34Domestic Policy Under Adams Issue of immigration from Western Europe1. raised residence requirements from 5 years to 142. Alien Laws: President could deport “dangerous”persons even in time of peace3. Sedition Acts- those who spoke out against thegov. would be fined & imprisoned (set to expire in1801)
35The Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson & Madison challenge the Alien & Sedition ActsCompact Theory- individual states were to be the final judges of the Federal gov. overstepping its “compact”Used as a platform for the election of 1800