Presentation on theme: "The New Republic 1789-1824 The Presidencies of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe."— Presentation transcript:
The New Republic The Presidencies of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe
America in census – 4 million What percent lived on farms? Five biggest cities – – What did they have in common? Public debt in 1790 – What is the big deal with our currency?
Washington’s Administration Election Cabinet – Where in the Constitution does it mention the Cabinet? – Who were the members of the first Cabinet? State, Treasury, War, Attorney General
Washington established many governmental precedents. PRECEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.
Shows use of “implied powers” Created by Washington First 4 departments 1) Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson foreign affairs 2) Secretary of Treasury- Alexander Hamilton money 3) Secretary of War- Henry Knox military 4) Attorney General- Edmund Randolph justice/law
Establishment of the Court System Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 passed by Congress 1.Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts. 2.US Supreme Court=a Chief Justice and 5 associate justices. (Today we have 9). 3.Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
Hamilton’s Economic Plan Believed if government favored the wealthy, in the long run all would benefit=stronger country “trickle down” theory Also believed that support from the wealthy would create a strong central government Assumption Bill-wanted Congress to assume debts accumulated by the national government and states Believed tariffs needed to get money to pay off debt (taxed 7 cents a gallon) Favored a National Bank
Issue of Banks and Constitution Hamilton v. Jefferson Said what the Constitution did not forbid it permitted Stated congress can pass any laws “necessary and proper” If the national gov. was to collect taxes and trade it needed a bank “loose construction” Said the constitution had no written authority to est. a bank Said it must then reside w/ states (10 th Amendment) “Strict construction”
Political Parties Emerge Political parties (fractions) emerge out of the new issues facing the nation Created in 1790 as Jefferson and Madison organize opposition against a federal bank
Washington’s Administration Loose construction vs. strict construction – Define – “Elastic clause”
Washington leaves office Leaves after 2 nd term (retires) Federalists back John Adams (Washington’s VP) Democratic-Republicans back Thomas Jefferson Adams won 71 to 68 Electoral Votes
Adams Administration Aristocrat Harvard Education Did not appeal to the masses
1796 JOHN ADAMS ELECTED 2 ND PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES XYZ Affair – 1798 – French wanted bribes to negotiate with America Alien and Sedition Acts – 1798 – allowed the President to deport foreign citizens and made it illegal to criticize government policies.
XYZ Affair Adams sent an envoy to help fix relations w/ France headed by John Marshall Instead of meeting the French Minister he met X,Y and Z Asked for 32 million florins and another 250,000 dollars in order for the Americans to speak to Talleyrand. Marshall refused and the U.S. prepared for war
“Millions for Defense” Navy Department created (expanded from its 3 ships) Marine Corps reestablished New army of 10,000 men
The Little man and America 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte becomes new French Minister Adams sends envoys to France Treaty of Convention peacetime military alliance between the two U.S. agreed to pay damage claims of American Shippers
Domestic Policy Under Adams Issue of immigration from Western Europe 1. raised residence requirements from 5 years to Alien Laws: President could deport “dangerous” persons even in time of peace 3. Sedition Acts- those who spoke out against the gov. would be fined & imprisoned (set to expire in 1801)
The Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson & Madison challenge the Alien & Sedition Acts Compact Theory- individual states were to be the final judges of the Federal gov. overstepping its “compact” Used as a platform for the election of 1800