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CHAPTER 9: LAUNCHING A NEW REPUBLIC Test Review. GEORGE WASHINGTON  1 st President of the United States  Reluctant President  Set many precedents as.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 9: LAUNCHING A NEW REPUBLIC Test Review. GEORGE WASHINGTON  1 st President of the United States  Reluctant President  Set many precedents as."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 9: LAUNCHING A NEW REPUBLIC Test Review

2 GEORGE WASHINGTON  1 st President of the United States  Reluctant President  Set many precedents as president  A precedent is a decision someone makes on how to handle an issue that then becomes a “rule” on how others will follow later in dealing with similar situations.  Appointed a cabinet of officials to give him advice on how to deal with issues while he was president.  He only ran for president twice, this was followed by each president until Franklin D. Roosevelt ran 4 times during the 1930s and 40s.

3 PRESIDENTIAL CABINET  During his presidency, Washington set up a cabinet with three departments  Department of State: Thomas Jefferson  Department of War: Henry Knox  Treasury Department: Alexander Hamilton

4 ALEXANDER HAMILTON  1 st Secretary of the Treasury  Thought the way to pay for our Revolutionary War debt was to raise money through tariffs  Thought the US should be urban (full of cities and manufacturing)

5 HAMILTON & THE NATIONAL BANK  Hamilton wanted to create an official bank of the US because he believed that having a bank to issue currency and make business loans would strengthen the United States.  His 3 part plan:  Create a national bank  Pay off war debts (using revenue from tariffs)  Raise money for the government

6 NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE  AKA: the ‘elastic’ clause  Gives Congress more powers than just those listed in the Constitution

7 THOMAS JEFFERSON  1 st Secretary of State  Wanted the expansion of states’ rights  Wanted a weak federal government and a strong state government  Wanted the US to be more rural and full of farmers  Member of the Democratic Republican party

8 FEDERAL JUDICIARY ACT 1789  Signed into law by Washington  Congress set up a court system  Act gave Supreme Court six members  5 Justices and 1 Chief Justice  Set up lower, less powerful federal court system

9 WHISKEY REBELLION  Congress decided to tax luxury items, like whiskey  Many farmers simply refused to pay it  In an effort to end protests, they lowered the tax. Many paid, but the “Whiskey Boys” tarred and feathered tax collectors that tried to enforce the law  Washington believed the rebellion was a threat to the authority of the national government and lead 13,000 militia to stop the threat  They stopped the rebellion and proved the new government was strong and powerful

10 WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRESS  Avoid entangling alliances  Trade is fine, but don’t become involved in anything happening across the ocean or we might get pulled into their problems.  Warned against creating political parties  Warned against taxing the American people too heavily

11 Who Should Govern? Democratic-Republican PartyFederalists Party Common People Rich, educated, elite Structure of Government Democratic-Republican PartyFederalists Party Favored a weak central government, strong state government Favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution Favored a strong central government Favored a loose interpretation of the Constitution Economics Democratic-Republican PartyFederalists Party Opposed a national bank Favored farming Favored national bank Favored manufacturing, trade, finance Foreign Affairs Democratic-Republican PartyFederalists Party Leaders: Jefferson and Madison Supporters: farmers, tradespeople Strongest in the South Leaders: Hamilton and Adams Supporters: bankers, lawyers, manufacturers Strongest in New England and along Atlantic Coast POLITICAL PARTIES

12 XYZ AFFAIR  Issue faced by John Adams when he took over the Presidential office  France and Britain were at war  France began seizing US ships and looting them to prevent US trade with Britain  Adams sent an ambassador to France to try to work things out  For several weeks no one would talk to them, until three French men (X,Y, and Z) said they could meet with France for $10 million  The ambassadors refused and reported it back to John Adams  Adams cancelled its treaties with France and allowed the US to seize French ships  Adams also set aside money to expand the navy and the army

13 ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS  First laws John Adams enacted  Alien Acts  Extended time it took for an immigrant to become a citizen with the right to vote from 5 to 14 years  Allowed the president to jail or deport aliens that were suspected of activity against the government  Sedition Act  Stated that ‘printing, uttering, or publishing any false scandalous and malicious writing’ against the government was a crime.  Used to punish Republican newspaper editors who insulted President Adams

14 EXECUTIVE BRANCH  Vetoes bills  Negotiate treaties  Commander in chief of the military

15 VOCABULARY  Strict Construction  Loose Construction  Tariff  Neutrality  Treasury  Propose  Bias  Precedent  Foreign  Enact


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