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Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic

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1 Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic
Test Review

2 George Washington 1st President of the United States
Reluctant President Set many precedents as president A precedent is a decision someone makes on how to handle an issue that then becomes a “rule” on how others will follow later in dealing with similar situations. Appointed a cabinet of officials to give him advice on how to deal with issues while he was president. He only ran for president twice, this was followed by each president until Franklin D. Roosevelt ran 4 times during the 1930s and 40s.

3 Presidential Cabinet During his presidency, Washington set up a cabinet with three departments Department of State: Thomas Jefferson Department of War: Henry Knox Treasury Department: Alexander Hamilton

4 Alexander Hamilton 1st Secretary of the Treasury
Thought the way to pay for our Revolutionary War debt was to raise money through tariffs Thought the US should be urban (full of cities and manufacturing)

5 Hamilton & The National Bank
Hamilton wanted to create an official bank of the US because he believed that having a bank to issue currency and make business loans would strengthen the United States. His 3 part plan: Create a national bank Pay off war debts (using revenue from tariffs) Raise money for the government

6 Necessary and Proper Clause
AKA: the ‘elastic’ clause Gives Congress more powers than just those listed in the Constitution

7 Thomas Jefferson 1st Secretary of State
Wanted the expansion of states’ rights Wanted a weak federal government and a strong state government Wanted the US to be more rural and full of farmers Member of the Democratic Republican party

8 Federal Judiciary Act 1789 Signed into law by Washington
Congress set up a court system Act gave Supreme Court six members 5 Justices and 1 Chief Justice Set up lower, less powerful federal court system

9 Whiskey Rebellion Congress decided to tax luxury items, like whiskey
Many farmers simply refused to pay it In an effort to end protests, they lowered the tax. Many paid, but the “Whiskey Boys” tarred and feathered tax collectors that tried to enforce the law Washington believed the rebellion was a threat to the authority of the national government and lead 13,000 militia to stop the threat They stopped the rebellion and proved the new government was strong and powerful

10 Washington’s Farewell Address
Avoid entangling alliances Trade is fine, but don’t become involved in anything happening across the ocean or we might get pulled into their problems. Warned against creating political parties Warned against taxing the American people too heavily

11 Structure of Government
Political Parties Who Should Govern? Democratic-Republican Party Federalists Party Common People Rich, educated, elite Structure of Government Democratic-Republican Party Federalists Party Favored a weak central government, strong state government Favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution Favored a strong central government Favored a loose interpretation of the Constitution Economics Democratic-Republican Party Federalists Party Opposed a national bank Favored farming Favored national bank Favored manufacturing, trade, finance Foreign Affairs Democratic-Republican Party Federalists Party Leaders: Jefferson and Madison Supporters: farmers, tradespeople Strongest in the South Leaders: Hamilton and Adams Supporters: bankers, lawyers, manufacturers Strongest in New England and along Atlantic Coast

12 XYZ Affair Issue faced by John Adams when he took over the Presidential office France and Britain were at war France began seizing US ships and looting them to prevent US trade with Britain Adams sent an ambassador to France to try to work things out For several weeks no one would talk to them, until three French men (X,Y, and Z) said they could meet with France for $10 million The ambassadors refused and reported it back to John Adams Adams cancelled its treaties with France and allowed the US to seize French ships Adams also set aside money to expand the navy and the army

13 Alien and Sedition Acts
First laws John Adams enacted Alien Acts Extended time it took for an immigrant to become a citizen with the right to vote from 5 to 14 years Allowed the president to jail or deport aliens that were suspected of activity against the government Sedition Act Stated that ‘printing, uttering, or publishing any false scandalous and malicious writing’ against the government was a crime. Used to punish Republican newspaper editors who insulted President Adams

14 Executive Branch Vetoes bills Negotiate treaties
Commander in chief of the military

15 Vocabulary Strict Construction Loose Construction Tariff Neutrality
Treasury Propose Bias Precedent Foreign Enact

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