Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Launching the New Ship of State Why Bill of Rights? All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Launching the New Ship of State Why Bill of Rights? All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Launching the New Ship of State

3 Why Bill of Rights? All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution Nine states needed to “reset” the country, canceling out the Articles of Confederation Nine states needed to “reset” the country, canceling out the Articles of Confederation Conservative document that prevented the “mob” from controlling government Conservative document that prevented the “mob” from controlling government Was a surprise to the public Was a surprise to the public

4 The first amendment—5 rights mentioned Freedom of Speech Freedom of Speech Freedom of Religion Freedom of Religion Freedom of the Press Freedom of the Press Freedom of Assembly Freedom of Assembly Right to petition the government Right to petition the government

5 Freedom of Religion “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there of” “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there of” Two clauses: Two clauses: Establishment clause Establishment clause Free Exercise clause Free Exercise clause

6 Establishment Clause— Government cannot promote or prefer a religion National Cathedral—Washington, D.C.

7 Freedom of speech “Congress shall make no laws... abridging the freedom of speech” “Congress shall make no laws... abridging the freedom of speech”

8 Freedom of Assembly Congress shall make no law... Abridging... The people to peaceably assemble” Congress shall make no law... Abridging... The people to peaceably assemble”

9 Petition the Government “Congress shall make no law... Abridging... the people... to petition the government for a redress of grievances” “Congress shall make no law... Abridging... the people... to petition the government for a redress of grievances”

10 2 nd Amendment—Right to bear arms “A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed.” “A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed.”

11 Third Amendment The Government cannot force you to shelter soldiers in your home without your consent in time of war or peace. The Government cannot force you to shelter soldiers in your home without your consent in time of war or peace.

12 Rights of the Accused Amendments #4-8 Important to preserve freedom

13 Fourth Amendment What does a policeman need in order to search your home? What does a policeman need in order to search your home? A warrant given to him by a judge A warrant given to him by a judge Probable cause is also needed Probable cause is also needed

14 Fifth Amendment You cannot be tried for the same crime twice—called “Double Jeopardy” You cannot be tried for the same crime twice—called “Double Jeopardy” You do not have to testify against your self. “I plead the fifth” You do not have to testify against your self. “I plead the fifth” You must have due process of law before you are convicted You must have due process of law before you are convicted The government cannot take your land unless it pays. The government cannot take your land unless it pays.

15 Sixth Amendment Right to speedy trial by impartial jury—meaning not favoring either side Right to speedy trial by impartial jury—meaning not favoring either side

16 Sixth Amendment continued You must be told of charges You must be provided a lawyer if you cannot afford one

17 Seventh Amendment In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

18 Eighth Amendment No excessive bail No cruel and unusual punishment

19 Ninth Amendment The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

20 Tenth Amendment The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

21 Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists Anti-Federalists States’ rights States’ rights Backcountry dwellers Backcountry dwellers Small farmers Small farmers Debtors Debtors S. Adams, P. Henry, Richard Henry Lee S. Adams, P. Henry, Richard Henry Lee Federalists Strong federal gov. Seaboard dwellers Wealthy and better educated Controlled the press (The Federalist Papers) G. Washington, B. Franklin, Madison, Hamilton, Jay

22

23 Election of 1789 Electors cast two votes for President Electors cast two votes for President Each elector selected Washington w/ at least one Each elector selected Washington w/ at least one NC and RI hadn’t ratified the Constitution NC and RI hadn’t ratified the Constitution NY had problems deciding how electors would be chosen NY had problems deciding how electors would be chosen

24 Executive Branch ( ) Cabinet not outlined in the Constitution – a “Washington Invention” John Jay named 1 st Chief Justice of the five member Supreme Court

25 Congress at work… James Madison sought to protect the Constitution and win over “the anti-Feds” James Madison sought to protect the Constitution and win over “the anti-Feds” What he develops becomes known as the Bill of Rights (he is the “father of”) What he develops becomes known as the Bill of Rights (he is the “father of”) One of the first acts done by the new Federal Government One of the first acts done by the new Federal Government Judiciary Act (1789) organizes the Supreme Court Judiciary Act (1789) organizes the Supreme Court

26 Alexander Hamilton Not a “natural” citizen (born in the Caribbean) Federalist / aide to Wash in AR Arch rival: Jefferson “Father of the National Debt” Assumption fight and compromise Debt was a “national blessing” Bank of the United States

27 National Debt structure Debt owed to Foreigners $11,710,000 Federal Debt $42,414,000 State Debt $21,500,000 Miscellaneous Revenue Customs Duties (tariffs) Excise Revenue (Whiskey, etc.)

28 Whiskey Rebellion (1794) PA farmers not happy with tariff PA farmers not happy with tariff Launch an “insurrection” Launch an “insurrection” Washington personally leads militia into PA to restore order (direct opposite of Shay’s Rebellion) Washington personally leads militia into PA to restore order (direct opposite of Shay’s Rebellion) Represents peaceful dialogue over violence in order to change policy Represents peaceful dialogue over violence in order to change policy

29 What caused parties to form?

30 Political Rivalries Democrat-Republicans States rights (local) States rights (local) Strict construction view Strict construction view Agriculture based Agriculture based Rule of the people Rule of the people Backed France Backed France Support in S and W Support in S and W Jefferson and Madison key supporters Jefferson and Madison key supporters Federalists Federal rights Loose construction view Industrial based Avoid “mob” rule / elites Backed England Support in NE J. Adams and Hamilton key supporters

31 Washington’s Farewell Address Beware of entangling alliances… …because they will get us involved in other people’s wars.

32 Rating the Presidents More notable American rather than President More notable American rather than President Extremely popular at the time Extremely popular at the time Sets the bar for what a Pres. does Sets the bar for what a Pres. does Foreign policy of neutrality Foreign policy of neutrality Prevents a “backslide” of revolutionary ideals Prevents a “backslide” of revolutionary ideals

33 Election of 1796 President and V.P. come from different parties for 1 st time President and V.P. come from different parties for 1 st time MD split the vote between the two MD split the vote between the two Other candidates vote count not depicted Other candidates vote count not depicted

34 President John Adams Jay’s Treaty with England angers D-R and France. Jay’s Treaty with England angers D-R and France. Adams not well liked and comes to power in a very close, bitter election Adams not well liked and comes to power in a very close, bitter election Stuck between neo-Federalists led by Hamilton (not pro-British enough) and Jefferson’s D-R (anti-British) Stuck between neo-Federalists led by Hamilton (not pro-British enough) and Jefferson’s D-R (anti-British) France reacts by seizing American vessels at sea (300 by 1797) France reacts by seizing American vessels at sea (300 by 1797)

35 Quasi-War w/ France ( ) John Marshall is sent to France to negotiate w/ Talleyrand John Marshall is sent to France to negotiate w/ Talleyrand

36 Quasi-War brought to you by the letters X, Y, and Z They ask for a $250,000 bribe just to talk to Talleyrand They ask for a $250,000 bribe just to talk to Talleyrand Marshall refuses and returns to America Marshall refuses and returns to America “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” Adams avoids war by appealing to new French ruler Napoleon Adams avoids war by appealing to new French ruler Napoleon Convention of 1800 = “divorce” w/ Fr. Convention of 1800 = “divorce” w/ Fr.

37 Alien and Sedition Acts Federalists during war fervor pass laws to silence the opposition (D-R) Federalists during war fervor pass laws to silence the opposition (D-R) Alien Act Alien Act Naturalization from 5 to 14 yrs Naturalization from 5 to 14 yrs President can jail or deport in time of war President can jail or deport in time of war Sedition Act Sedition Act Impeding policies of the government = jail Impeding policies of the government = jail Attacking officials in press = jail and fine Attacking officials in press = jail and fine

38 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts Reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts Jefferson writes for Kentucky Jefferson writes for Kentucky Madison writes for Virginia Madison writes for Virginia Develops the idea of “nullification” Develops the idea of “nullification” The States have the right to ignore laws that the Federal Government “oversteps it’s authority on” The States have the right to ignore laws that the Federal Government “oversteps it’s authority on” Constitutional issues were later a right the Supreme Court “adopts” in Constitutional issues were later a right the Supreme Court “adopts” in 1803.

39 Rating the Presidents More notable American rather than President More notable American rather than President Extremely disliked at the time / abrasive personality Extremely disliked at the time / abrasive personality Doesn’t get caught up in war fever and does what was best for the country Doesn’t get caught up in war fever and does what was best for the country Splits his party and loses in close election to Jefferson Splits his party and loses in close election to Jefferson

40 Thomas JeffersonAlexander Hamilton Democratic - RepublicansFederalists

41 Hamilton and Jefferson: Differing Views Alexander HamiltonThomas Jefferson Favored trade, manufacturing and cities Believed that the federal government should have more power than the states Believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution was pro-British Favored farmers and rural communities Believed that states should have more power than the federal government (state’s rights) Believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution was pro-French

42 pro-British First Political Parties led by Alexander Hamilton strong central government led by industry and the wealthy emphasis on manufacturing, shipping, and trade loose interpretation of the Constitution favored the national bank favored protective tariffs led by Thomas Jefferson strong state governments led by the “common man” emphasis on agriculture “Cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens.” – Thomas Jefferson strict interpretation of the Constitution opposed the national bank opposed protective tariffs pro-French

43 Thomas Jefferson kneels before the altar of Gallic despotism as God and an American eagle attempt to prevent him from destroying the Constitution. Jefferson's alleged attack on George Washington and John Adams in the form of a letter to Philip Mazzei falls from his pocket. Jefferson is supported by Satan, the writings of Thomas Paine, and the French philosophers. The Providential Detection The Providential Detection


Download ppt "Launching the New Ship of State Why Bill of Rights? All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution All thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google