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PAGE 1 WWW.NICKJORDAN.CA HORTON HIGH SCHOOL 2014 GLOBAL HISTORY 12 Unit 2 – The Cold War Expansion & Containment.

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Presentation on theme: "PAGE 1 WWW.NICKJORDAN.CA HORTON HIGH SCHOOL 2014 GLOBAL HISTORY 12 Unit 2 – The Cold War Expansion & Containment."— Presentation transcript:

1 PAGE 1 WWW.NICKJORDAN.CA HORTON HIGH SCHOOL 2014 GLOBAL HISTORY 12 Unit 2 – The Cold War Expansion & Containment

2 PAGE 2 The Cold War Heats Up! GLOBAL HISTORY 12 At the heart of the tension was a fundamental difference in political systems America is a democracy that has a capitalist economic system, free elections and competing political parties In the U.S.S.R., the sole political party – the Communists – established a totalitarian regime with little or no rights for the citizens TENSIONS BUILD

3 PAGE 3 Make ‘em Pay! After the end of the war, a conference was held in Potsdam, Germany, to set up peace treaties. The countries that fought with Hitler lost territory and had to pay reparations to the Allies. Germany and its capital Berlin were divided into four parts. The zones were to be controlled by Great Britain, the United States, France and the Soviet Union. GERMANY DIVIDED

4 PAGE 4 YOU OWE US War reparations are payments intended to cover damage or injury inflicted during a war. Generally, the term war reparations refers to money or goods changing hands, rather than such property transfers as the annexation of land. REPARATIONS

5 PAGE 5 YOU OWE US At the Yalta Conference (February, 1945), the Soviet Union proposed that German reparations be set at approximately $20 billion of which the Soviets wanted half. Great Britain and the United States but didn’t finalize an amount. REPARATIONS

6 PAGE 6 Buffer Needed BUILDING AN IRON CURTAIN The Soviet Union suffered an estimated 20 million WWII deaths, half of whom were civilian As a result they felt justified in their claim to Eastern Europe. The countries that they liberated should be part of their new ‘union’. Furthermore, they felt they needed Eastern Europe as a buffer against future German aggression

7 PAGE 7 Buffer Needed The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.World War II The term symbolized efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the west and non- Soviet-controlled areas. BUILDING AN IRON CURTAIN

8 PAGE 8 Warsaw Pact vs NATO TEAM COMMUNISM VS TEAM DEMOCRACY On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. The countries who were part of the Warsaw Pact created an economic and military alliances, with the Soviet Union as the leading state Member countries of the European Community and/or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and with the United States as the leading country

9 PAGE 9 Join Our Team! Stalin installed “satellite” communist governments in the Eastern European countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and East Germany This after promising “free elections” for Eastern Europe at the Yalta Conference WE INSIST In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable

10 PAGE 10 Policy of Containment Faced with the Soviet threat, Truman decided it was time to “stop babying the Soviets” In February 1946, George Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, proposed a policy of containment Containment meant the U.S. would prevent any further extension of communist rule STOP THE COMMUNISTS!

11 PAGE 11 The Truman Doctrine Helping to rebuild Sir Winston 1948 This doctrine, first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s, vowed to provide aid (money & military supplies) to support “free peoples who are resisting outside pressures” Churchill Stop Communism Containment Buying Friends Loyalty $$ Truman Doctrine In a 1946 speech, Churchill said, “An iron curtain has descended across the continent” - the division of Europe The American policy of “containment” soon expanded into a policy known as the Truman Doctrine” By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey

12 PAGE 12 The Marshall Plan Post-war Europe was devastated economically In June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a U.S. aid package to European nations Western Europe accepted the help, while Eastern Europe (read Stalin) rejected the aid ECONOMIC AID TO REBUILD EUROPE The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover economically

13 PAGE 13 The Marshall Plan Over the next four years 16 European countries received $13 billion in U.S. aid By 1952 Western Europe’s economy was flourishing ECONOMIC AID TO REBUILD EUROPE

14 PAGE 14 GERMAN BATTLE Super Powers struggle over Germany At the end of the war, Germany was divided among the Allies into four zones for the purpose of occupation The U.S, France, and Great Britain decided to combine their 3 zones into one zone – West Germany, or the federal Republic of Germany The U.S.S.R. controlled East Germany, or the German Democratic Republic Now the superpowers were occupying an area right next to each other – problems were bound to occur

15 PAGE 15 BERLIN BLOCKADE 1948 Battle for Berlin The Berlin blockade (June ‘48 – May ‘49) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. Cold War During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under allied control. Berlin Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food, fuel, and aid, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.

16 PAGE 16 BERLIN AIRLIFT Soviet Plan Foiled Not wanting to invade and start a war with the Soviets, America and Britain started the Berlin airlift to fly supplies into West Berlin For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes, around the clock

17 PAGE 17 BERLIN AIRLIFT Soviet Plan Foiled In 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3 million tons of food, fuel and medicine to the West Berliners Realizing they were beaten and suffering a public relations nightmare, the Soviets lifted their blockade in May, 1949

18 PAGE 18 NATA FORMED The West Creates a Military Alliance The Berlin blockade increased Western Europe’s fear of Soviet aggression As a result, ten West European nations joined the U.S and Canada on April 4, 1949 to form a defensive alliance known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

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