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26.1- Origins of the Cold War

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1 26.1- Origins of the Cold War
Lesson Objective: To understand how the Cold War began Essential Question: Was the Cold War unavoidable?

2 Key Terms Satellite Nations Containment Cold War Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

3 Key Dates Feb 1946- Containment becomes U.S. policy
March Iron Curtain Speech March Truman Doctrine Feb Marshall Plan is passed June Berlin Airlift begins April 1949 – NATO is formed May Airlift ends May West Germany is formed

4 Mistrust Among Allies As World War II ended it became clear that the U.S.S.R. and U.S. would be the two dominant global powers U.S. - Democracy & Capitalism U.S.S.R. – Totalitarian & Communists Other than their competing ideologies there were other reasons that the Soviets and Americans did not trust each other Stalin had signed nonaggression pact with Hitler Allies waited to invade mainland Europe U.S. hid atomic bombs from them Soviets go back on their promise to allow free elections in Poland and Eastern Europe – The Red Army was occupying Eastern Europe not much the U.S. could have done

5 Truman vs. Stalin

6 Former Allies Clash The U.S. and the Soviets had conflicting strategic aims in Europe What are each sides goals? U.S. Goals Soviet Goals

7 Soviets Tighten Their Grip in Eastern Europe
Soviets lost 20 million people during the war and had a nearly destroyed economy Soviets wanted Eastern European communist countries to serve as a buffer against the west and to extract wealth out of them Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania all became Satellite Nations Define: Stalin takes all industrial equipment out of these countries to rebuild Russia Eastern Europe is totally dependent on the Soviet Union U.S. Response is Containment “…Time to stop babying the Soviets.” – Harry S. Truman Became bedrock principle in American foreign Policy until 1972!

8 “…An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent
“…An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent.” – Winston Churchill Cold War officially begins Define: The Truman Doctrine Truman aids Turkey and Greece against Communist revolutions U.S. will support nations against “armed minorities” or “outside pressures” $400 million to Greece and Turkey – stopped communist take overs there Is this good policy? The Marshall Plan Gen. George Marshall- Sec. of State in plan to give aid to war torn Western Europe 12.5 Billion Dollars to rebuild Europe How did this serve U.S. interests? By 1952 the Marshall Plan had been a great success and Western Europe was booming


10 Struggle over Germany Western Allies allowed West Germany to unify in 1948 Remember strategic aims of each side, How might the Soviets react to this? Answer: Hold West Berlin hostage Stalin cut off all travel, trade, and water to West Berlin. 2.1 Million people in West Berlin- had enough food for 5 weeks Solution: The Berlin Airlift British and American planes flew supplies into Berlin Planes flew around the clock, taking off every few minutes, for 327 days 277,000 flights in total 2.3 million tons of supplies Soviets lift blockade in May 1949 – major blow to Soviet prestige Same month West Germany approves its constitution and is recognized by U.S. and its Allies Soviets turned their occupation zone into the German Democratic Republic or East Germany








18 NATO Defensive Military Alliance
First time U.S. entered military Alliance in peacetime Attack on one meant attack on all US, UK, France, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxemburg, Canada, and the United States

19 Quiz 26.1 Name one U.S. Goal after WWII
Name one Soviet goal after WWII ___________ coined the phrase “iron curtain.” ___________ was the U.S. plan to rebuild Europe. ___________ was formed to defend against Soviet Aggression in Europe.

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