3 Key Dates Feb 1946- Containment becomes U.S. policy March Iron Curtain SpeechMarch Truman DoctrineFeb Marshall Plan is passedJune Berlin Airlift beginsApril 1949 – NATO is formedMay Airlift endsMay West Germany is formed
4 Mistrust Among AlliesAs World War II ended it became clear that the U.S.S.R. and U.S. would be the two dominant global powersU.S. - Democracy & CapitalismU.S.S.R. – Totalitarian & CommunistsOther than their competing ideologies there were other reasons that the Soviets and Americans did not trust each otherStalin had signed nonaggression pact with HitlerAllies waited to invade mainland EuropeU.S. hid atomic bombs from themSoviets go back on their promise to allow free elections in Poland and Eastern Europe – The Red Army was occupying Eastern Europe not much the U.S. could have done
6 Former Allies ClashThe U.S. and the Soviets had conflicting strategic aims in EuropeWhat are each sides goals?U.S. GoalsSoviet Goals
7 Soviets Tighten Their Grip in Eastern Europe Soviets lost 20 million people during the war and had a nearly destroyed economySoviets wanted Eastern European communist countries to serve as a buffer against the west and to extract wealth out of themPoland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania all became Satellite NationsDefine:Stalin takes all industrial equipment out of these countries to rebuild RussiaEastern Europe is totally dependent on the Soviet UnionU.S. Response is Containment“…Time to stop babying the Soviets.” – Harry S. TrumanBecame bedrock principle in American foreign Policy until 1972!
8 “…An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent “…An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent.” – Winston ChurchillCold War officially beginsDefine:The Truman DoctrineTruman aids Turkey and Greece against Communist revolutionsU.S. will support nations against “armed minorities” or “outside pressures”$400 million to Greece and Turkey – stopped communist take overs thereIs this good policy?The Marshall PlanGen. George Marshall- Sec. of State in plan to give aid to war torn Western Europe12.5 Billion Dollars to rebuild EuropeHow did this serve U.S. interests?By 1952 the Marshall Plan had been a great success and Western Europe was booming
10 Struggle over GermanyWestern Allies allowed West Germany to unify in 1948Remember strategic aims of each side, How might the Soviets react to this?Answer: Hold West Berlin hostageStalin cut off all travel, trade, and water to West Berlin.2.1 Million people in West Berlin- had enough food for 5 weeksSolution: The Berlin AirliftBritish and American planes flew supplies into BerlinPlanes flew around the clock, taking off every few minutes, for 327 days277,000 flights in total2.3 million tons of suppliesSoviets lift blockade in May 1949 – major blow to Soviet prestigeSame month West Germany approves its constitution and is recognized by U.S. and its AlliesSoviets turned their occupation zone into the German Democratic Republic or East Germany
18 NATO Defensive Military Alliance First time U.S. entered military Alliance in peacetimeAttack on one meant attack on allUS, UK, France, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxemburg, Canada, and the United States
19 Quiz 26.1 Name one U.S. Goal after WWII Name one Soviet goal after WWII___________ coined the phrase “iron curtain.”___________ was the U.S. plan to rebuild Europe.___________ was formed to defend against Soviet Aggression in Europe.