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Cold War Chapter 18 section 1.

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1 Cold War Chapter 18 section 1

2 Allies Clash U.S. and Soviet Union = Rival superpowers after war
Both could Influence world Americans / Soviets became more suspicious of each other A bitter rivalry starts Stalin angry U.S. did not attack Europe quick enough Secret of the Atomic Bomb

3 Soviet Communism vs American Capitalism
State controls all property and economy Totalitarian gov. with no opposing parties Vs. Voting by the people elected the president and a congress from competing political parties.

4 United Nations Created at the end of WWII April 25, 1945
Representative – 50 Nations Establish Peacekeeping Body 2 months of debate Arena to compete for the two super powers – spread influence over every one else

5 Potsdam Conference July 1945 = Germany Big 3 = Clement, Truman, Stalin
Final wartime conference Big 3 = Clement, Truman, Stalin Take reparations from own occupation zones Spreading of democracy Right to self determination (each country could chose what type of gov. they wanted) U.S./ Soviet Union very powerful Enormous economic / military strength

6 European goals for U.S. and Soviet Union
Let all countries decide what they want to be Gain access to raw materials Rebuild european gov. so U.S. could trade with them Reunite Germany Soviets Establish communism Control eastern Europe to keep U.S. influence out Keep Germany divided and weak

7 Soviet Union Soviet Union = Huge losses from WWII
20+ million deaths ½ of them were civilians Felt justified in claims to Eastern Europe as a result of WWII Installed communist governments Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland Were called Satellite Nations = Dominated by the Soviets

8 Containment Stop “Babysitting the Soviets” said Truman Containment
Prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries Europe = 2 political regions Democratic Western Europe Communist Eastern Europe Iron Curtain Division of Europe

9 Cold War Cold War = 1945 - 1991 Truman Doctrine
Conflicting U.S. and Soviet aims in Eastern Europe Never directly confronting each other No shots ever fired Truman Doctrine “It must be the policy of the U.S. to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” Giving aid to countries who where threatened to be taken over Greece / Turkey $400 million

10 Marshall Plan June 1947 George Marshall = Sec. of State
Provide aid to all European Nations that needed it Europe in Chaos Factories bombed Millions living in refugee camps Bitter winter Damaged crops Frozen rivers – transportation – fuel shortage Helped the economy in W. Europe

11 Superpowers struggle over Germany

12 Struggle over Germany 1948 Berlin Airlift
Split into 4 zones at end of War 1948 Britain, France, U.S. = Combined zones Western Berlin was occupied by the French Soviets surrounded Berlin Stalin wants all of Berlin closed all highway and rail routes into West Berlin No food or fuel could reach the W. Berlin citizens Only enough food to last for 5 weeks Berlin Airlift Fly in food / Supplies = 327 days 227,000 flights million tons of supplies 1949 = Soviets lifted blockade


14 NATO April 4, 1949 = Defensive Military alliance
North Atlantic Treaty Organization = NATO Soviet Union not in it 28 Countries today Military support to one another 1st U.S. alliance during peacetime Standing military = 500,000 troops Thousands of planes, tanks, and supplies

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