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Cold War Origins: After being Allies during WWII, the U.S. & U.S.S.R. soon viewed each other with increasing suspicion...

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War Origins: After being Allies during WWII, the U.S. & U.S.S.R. soon viewed each other with increasing suspicion..."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War Origins: After being Allies during WWII, the U.S. & U.S.S.R. soon viewed each other with increasing suspicion...

2 United Nations Agreed to by the “Big Three” @ the Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945); Debated for two months by 50 countries in San Francisco (April 1945) Headquarters in NYC GOAL: Promote globalism Create something stronger than the League of Nations Recognize isolationism is a failure

3 UN Organization: Secretariat – oversees day-to-day programs, policies, & operations General Assembly – Members bring ideas forward to all for open discussion Security Council – Responsible for maintaining international peace and security; enforces rules through resolutions Permanent Members: U.S., G.B., France, China, Russia = veto power Economic & Social Council – 54 member countries serve on Council that conducts programs in medicine, education, and social needs Trusteeship Council - overseas transition of colonies to independent states International Court of Justice - judicial body of UN

4 Ideologies CLASH! United States: Capitalism (Market economy): private citizens control almost all economic activity (ex. What to produce, who produces it, and for whom it is produced?) Democracy: right to vote, competing political parties U.S.S.R. Communism (Command Economy): state controls all property & economic activity Totalitarian: one political party - the Communists; little to no rights for the citizens

5 Soviets Spread Communism WWII: Soviet troops occupied most of Eastern Europe USSR prevents free-elections which lead to communist governments 1948: these nations become "satellites" of Soviet Union (A country ruled by another nation) These nations serve as a buffer (security) for USSR from an invasion by Germany

6 Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, romania, Yugoslavia, east Germany, poland Satellite nations (1948):

7 "Iron Curtain Across Europe" Europe was now divided into TWO political regions; a mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe 1946: Churchill said, "An iron curtain has descended across the continent." The phrase "iron curtain" came to stand for the division of Europe

8 Division between the democratic Western Europe & communist eastern Europe "Iron curtain" (1946):

9 U.S. Containment Policy Faced with Soviet threat, Truman decided it was time to "stop babying" the Soviets Containment meant the U.S. would prevent any further Soviet expansion

10 Truman Doctrine Containment policy expanded into a policy known as the Truman Doctrine in 1947 Truman Doctrine: provided aid (money & military supplies) to support "free peoples who are resisting pressures" First used in Greece & Turkey (By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 mil.)

11 Marshall Plan Post-war Europe was devastated economically By June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a U.S. aid package to European nations Western Europe accepted the help, while Eastern Europe (Stalin) rejected the aid Over the next 4 years...16 countries received $13 billion in U.S. aid By 1952 Western Europe's economy was flourishing

12 Struggle Over Germany At the end of WWII, Germany was divided into four occupation zones U.S., France, & Great Britain combined their 3 zones into one zone - West Germany U.S.S.R. controlled East Germany Now the superpowers were occupying an area right next to each other - problems were bound to occur

13 Berlin Airlift 1948: Soviets attempted to block the three Western powers from access to Berlin 2.1 million residents of Berlin had only enough food for five weeks, resulting in a dire situation! For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes (277,000 flights) - delivering 2.3 million tons of food, fuel, & medicine to West Berlin Realizing they were beaten & suffering a public relations nightmare, the Soviets lifted their blockade in May 1949

14 NATO Formed Berlin blockade increased Western Europe's fear of Soviet aggression 1949: USSR detonates its first atomic bomb As a result, ten Western European nations joined the U.S. & Canada (April 1949) to form defensive alliance An attack against one member was an attack against all NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization

15 U.S., Canada, great Britain, Belgium, Denmark, france, iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, netherlands, Norway, portugal, Greece, Turkey, West Germany Nato members (1949):

16 Warsaw Pact Soviet Union responded to NATO by setting up the Warsaw Pact (1955) Made up of its satellite nations Communist counteraction “Treaty of mutual friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance”

17 Ussr, poland, east Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, romania, Bulgaria Warsaw pact (1955):

18 Communism Spreads to Asia China becomes Communist (1949) U.S. supported nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek (fought Japan in WWII) Gov = inefficient & corrupt Communist leader, Mao Zedong gained support of peasants

19 Led to civil war between Nationalists & Communists U.S. sent $3 billion in aid (military equipment & supplies) Communists win...containment failed! Truman criticized for giving limited aid

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