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The Origins of the Cold War –

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1 The Origins of the Cold War – 1945 - 1949
Guided Reading Activity Answers

2 The Soviet Perspective
The Soviet Union had lost over 10 Million men during the First World War, when Germany invaded their Western border. A bloody civil war followed, then, in 1941, they were attacked by Germany for a second time – with even more devastating results. Twenty million men perished, defending the nation from Nazi Invasion. The only goal of the Soviet Union after World War II was to prevent another German attack – even if it meant they would have to prevent Germany from ever rebuilding. Democracy in Eastern Europe – the rights of the people of Eastern Europe, even – were secondary concerns for Stalin.

3 Winston Churchill, Fulton, MO, 1946
“ An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all of the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe....all these famous cities and populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.”

4 “The Iron Curtain” Divides Europe, 1945 - 1989
The term “iron curtain” was a way to refer to the barrier in culture and understanding which was emerging between Western European governments and Eastern European governments under the Soviet Union’s influence.

5 The USSR’s Satellite Nations
Countries under the control of the Soviet Union – and ruled by so-called “Puppet Governments”: Poland East Germany Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria Albania Yugoslavia

6 The Truman Doctrine, 1947 US will provide economic and military aid to any nations threatened by communism - particularly Greece and Turkey, both of which faced insurgent threats which were led by the USSR and its communist allies. The Truman Doctrine delivered over $400 Million in economic and military aid to these two nations, hoping to preserve capitalism and democracy in the region.

7 Did the plan work?

8 Containment - The US foreign policy to stop the spread of communism in the world!

9 The Marshall Plan, Named for General George Marshall – who became the Secretary of State under Harry S. Truman following WWII. The plan was simple. Help European nations rebuild, so they will not suffer from the economic and political depression again (which had allowed dictators to rise up in Europe following WWI). Between 1948 and 1951, the United States loaned out over $13 Billion to 16 countries – the only requirement: US made these nations preserve a democratic government.

10 Good idea? Bad idea?

11 The Economics of the Marshall Plan – Worth it!
By investing in European nations after the war, we were committing ourselves to creating a new Europe – devoted to democracy, individual rights, and capitalism – which would prevent future wars and preserve peace. We were also preventing the USSR from sending in foreign agitators to overthrow the stable governments of Eastern Europe and replace them with more communist, puppet governments devoted to worldwide communist revolt!

12 The Berlin Blockade & the Berlin Airlift
Berlin Blockade: Stalin attempted to control the entire city of Berlin by blocking off all routes in and out of West Berlin! This included: roads, rails, canals, and waterways. The US and Great Britain responded with the largest and most massive airlift ever organized. Berlin Airlift: US and Britain’s response to blockade – largest airlift organized – flew in supplies and goods to West Berlin. 11 months, 3 supply planes an hour were flown into Berlin. By the end of the airlift, over 200,000 flights had landed in West Berlin with relief of an average of 13,000 pounds a day!

13 The Berlin Wall, 1961 - 1989 Separated a democratic West Berlin from surrounding Communist areas.

14 The UN: The United Nations
The purpose is to preserve world peace by settling disputes between nations. Replaced the failed League of Nations.

15 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Established by the US in as a security agreement with our Western European allies to prevent Soviet Aggression by establishing a defensive agreement with our closest allies. Members of NATO included: The United States Canada The Netherlands England West Germany France Italy Portugal Turkey Norway Greece Belgium Luxembourg

16 North Atlantic Treaty Organization - 2011

17 The Warsaw Pact Nations
Established as a rebuttal to NATO. The Soviet Union created this alliance with the other governments of Eastern Europe The Soviet Union East Germany Poland Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria Albania

18 China Leader Mao Zedong turns country Communist in Soviet Union has an ally in Asia.

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