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Chapter 26 The Cold War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 The Cold War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26 The Cold War

2 Causes of the Cold War

3 Changes United Nations has its first meeting: April 25th 1945
Officially sign the charter to establish the UN on June 26th. Harry Truman becomes president of the United States on April 12, 1945 because of the sudden death of FDR. Clement Attlee becomes the new British Prime Minister.

4 Potsdam Conference

5 Potsdam Conference Opinions from the Yalta Conference do not count here, which causes tension between the two great powers. Truman does not want to take reparations from Germany per the agreement at Yalta. Soviets feel justified in taking the Eastern half of Germany because of the devastation wrought upon their home soil. 20 million Russian deaths, half of whom were civilians. Holding this land would allow them to stop future invasions from the west, if they ever came.

6 Communism VS Democracy
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland. Can anyone tell me what kind of government these countries had after World War II? They had Communist governments and became Satellite nations of the USSR. A satellite nation is a nation that appears to be sovereign, but is actually under the control of another nation.

7 Goals of the United States
Create a new world order in which all nations had the right to self-determination. Gain Access to raw materials and markets for its industries. Rebuild European governments to ensure stability and to create new markets for American goods. Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive.

8 Goals of the Soviet Union
Encourage communism in other countries as part of the worldwide struggle between workers and the wealthy. Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe’s industrial equipment and raw materials Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe. Keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the Soviet Union.

9 The Iron Curtain or Sinew of Peace Speech -- Winston Churchill
Divided Europe Page 811 Buffer Zone Satellite Nations that are the eastern European nations. Early 1946 Stalin makes a speech announcing that communism and capitalism were incompatible—and that another war is inevitable.

10 Sinews of Peace Speech

11 United States’ Response
Policy of Containment – Feb. 1946—George Kennan An attempt to block Soviet expansion by creating alliances & supporting weak nations “Contain” Communism Official U.S. Foreign Policy toward Soviet Union

12 Truman Doctrine First attempt by the United States to stymie communist growth March 1947 $400 million aid to Turkey & Greece Give aid to any country opposing Communism Strengthen countries in order to fight off Communism. p. 812 Boosted Anti-Communist feelings in America “it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” -Truman

13 Marshall Plan Proposed in June 1947 European Recovery Plan
Aid to all countries in Europe Countered hunger, poverty, depression, and chaos Promptly approved Feb. 1948 Soviet Union invaded and took over Czechoslovakia $12.5 billion in aid – highly successful

14 A Divided Germany

15 Berlin Airlift AKA – Berlin Blockade
Soviets opposed German reunification West Berlin held hostage by Soviets Cut off highway, water, and rail traffic City faced starvation Food/Supplies flown into West Berlin 327 continuous days Soviets lift blockade May 1949

16 Reorganization of Germany
Federal Republic of Germany Great Britain, U.S., & French Zones West Germany Capital: Bonn German Democratic Republic Soviet Zone East Germany Capital: East Berlin

17 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO 10 Western European nations U.S. and Canada An attack on one means an attack on all Marks the end of United States’ isolationism 1st military alliance US joined during peacetime

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