Presentation on theme: "Organic Compounds Emily and Lauren. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. Ex. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 When sugars are broken."— Presentation transcript:
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. Ex. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 When sugars are broken down, energy released is stored as ATP.
Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides – single ring structures containing 3-7 carbon atoms ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose & deoxyribose Disaccharides – two simple sugars joined by the process of dehydration synthesis ex. Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Polysaccharides – a chain of many simple sugars ex. starch and glycogen
Dehydration Synthesis a chemical reaction where two molecules become covalently bonded together by the loss of a small molecule, which is usually water
Lipids Lipids are most commonly found as neutral fats, phospholipids, and steroids. They enter the body as meats, eggs, oils, and dairy products. Most lipids are insoluble in water.
Neutral fats, Phospholipids, and Steroids Neutral fats, or triglycerides, are composed of fatty acids and glycerol. Animal fats tend to be solid (saturated) while plant oil are liquid or unsaturated. When broken down they release large amounts energy and are stored as fat deposits under the skin. Phospholipids are fatty acid chains with an attached phosphate group that give polarity to the cell wall allowing water to enter. Steroid structures are formed from four interlocking rings. Cholesterol is the most important steroid. It is used to form sex hormones, vitamin D, cortisol, and bile.
Proteins Contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen like carbohydrates and lipids Also contain nitrogen and sometimes sulfur Made up of small molecule known as amino acids Structural Proteins vs. Functional Proteins
Amino Acids Amino acids are classified using three groups. Amine group – this gives the basic properties Acid group – this allows the to act as acids R-group – this makes each amino acid chemically unique
Structural vs. Functional Proteins Fibrous Proteins Also called structural proteins Practically insoluble Are never enzymes or hormones 3 types Keratins – in hair and nails, makes skin tough Collagens – found in bones, cartilage, and tendons (most abundant) Elastins – found at blood vessels and ligaments Globular Proteins Also called functional proteins Soluble in aqueous solutions Can act as: Enzymes – act as biological catalysts Messengers – to regulate biological processes (hormones → insulin) Transporters – carries other molecules through membranes Ex. Hemoglobin – part of the cell shape and carries the oxygen to the other cells
Enzymes Functional proteins that act as biological catalysts Each have a specific function Catalyst- a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or being changed itself Needed to speed to process of biochemical reactions – otherwise too slow Ex. Hydrolase, oxidase, amylase, lipase Active vs. inactive