Presentation on theme: "Chemistry of Carbon Molecules"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemistry of Carbon Molecules Organic ChemistryChemistry of Carbon Molecules
2 Carbon 4 electrons in outer energy level. Needs to form four covalent bonds to become stable.Can form single, double, or triple bonds.A double bond is a bond in which each atom shares two electrons.Can bond with other carbon atoms to form straight chains, branched chains or rings of various sizes.
3 IsomerCompounds with the same chemical formula but a different 3-D structure.Example: glucose and fructose (both C6H12O6)
4 PolymersLarge biomolecules formed from many smaller molecules bonded together.Example: Proteins
5 CarbohydratesBiomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.Used by cells to provide energy.
6 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharides Simplest carbohydrate.Simple sugar.Examples: glucose and fructoseDisaccharideFormed from two monosaccharidesExample: Sucrose (table sugar) (formed from glucose and fructose)PolysaccharidesLargest carbohydratesExamples: Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose
7 LipidsLarge biomolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen.Used for energy storage, insulation, and protective covering.Insoluble in water because they are non-polar molecules.Examples:Fats, oils, waxes, steroids.
8 Lipids Formed from fatty acids. Saturated fatty acid: Long chain of carbon and hydrogen.Saturated fatty acid:Each carbon in the chain is bonded to the other carbon atoms by a single bond.Unsaturated fatty acid:A double or a triple bond is present in the chain.
9 ProteinsLarge complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.Provide structure for tissues, contract muscle tissues, transport oxygen in the bloodstream, regulate reactions, and carry out cell metabolism.Enzyme:Protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction.
10 ProteinsProteins are common in a large variety of sizes and 3-D shapes.The shape depends on the properties of the individual amino acids (ex. pH).Formed from amino acids.20 common amino acids.Covalent bond between two amino acids is called a peptide bond.
11 Nucleic AcidsComplex molecules that store information in the form of a code.Made of smaller units called nucleotides.Nucleotides are formed from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms arranged in three groups: a nitrogeneous base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate groupExamples:DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)