Presentation on theme: "Chemistry of Carbon Molecules"— Presentation transcript:
1Chemistry of Carbon Molecules Organic ChemistryChemistry of Carbon Molecules
2Carbon 4 electrons in outer energy level. Needs to form four covalent bonds to become stable.Can form single, double, or triple bonds.A double bond is a bond in which each atom shares two electrons.Can bond with other carbon atoms to form straight chains, branched chains or rings of various sizes.
3IsomerCompounds with the same chemical formula but a different 3-D structure.Example: glucose and fructose (both C6H12O6)
4PolymersLarge biomolecules formed from many smaller molecules bonded together.Example: Proteins
5CarbohydratesBiomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.Used by cells to provide energy.
6Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharides Simplest carbohydrate.Simple sugar.Examples: glucose and fructoseDisaccharideFormed from two monosaccharidesExample: Sucrose (table sugar) (formed from glucose and fructose)PolysaccharidesLargest carbohydratesExamples: Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose
7LipidsLarge biomolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen.Used for energy storage, insulation, and protective covering.Insoluble in water because they are non-polar molecules.Examples:Fats, oils, waxes, steroids.
8Lipids Formed from fatty acids. Saturated fatty acid: Long chain of carbon and hydrogen.Saturated fatty acid:Each carbon in the chain is bonded to the other carbon atoms by a single bond.Unsaturated fatty acid:A double or a triple bond is present in the chain.
9ProteinsLarge complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.Provide structure for tissues, contract muscle tissues, transport oxygen in the bloodstream, regulate reactions, and carry out cell metabolism.Enzyme:Protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction.
10ProteinsProteins are common in a large variety of sizes and 3-D shapes.The shape depends on the properties of the individual amino acids (ex. pH).Formed from amino acids.20 common amino acids.Covalent bond between two amino acids is called a peptide bond.
11Nucleic AcidsComplex molecules that store information in the form of a code.Made of smaller units called nucleotides.Nucleotides are formed from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms arranged in three groups: a nitrogeneous base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate groupExamples:DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)