Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Chemistry of Carbon Molecules. Carbon 4 electrons in outer energy level. Needs to form four covalent bonds to become stable. Can form."— Presentation transcript:
Organic Chemistry Chemistry of Carbon Molecules
Carbon 4 electrons in outer energy level. Needs to form four covalent bonds to become stable. Can form single, double, or triple bonds. –A double bond is a bond in which each atom shares two electrons. Can bond with other carbon atoms to form straight chains, branched chains or rings of various sizes.
Isomer Compounds with the same chemical formula but a different 3-D structure. –Example: glucose and fructose (both C 6 H 12 O 6 )
Polymers Large biomolecules formed from many smaller molecules bonded together. –Example: Proteins
Carbohydrates Biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. Used by cells to provide energy.
Carbohydrates Monosaccharide –Simplest carbohydrate. –Simple sugar. –Examples: glucose and fructose Disaccharide –Formed from two monosaccharides –Example: Sucrose (table sugar) (formed from glucose and fructose) Polysaccharides –Largest carbohydrates –Examples: Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose
Lipids Large biomolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen. Used for energy storage, insulation, and protective covering. Insoluble in water because they are non- polar molecules. Examples: –Fats, oils, waxes, steroids.
Lipids Formed from fatty acids. –Long chain of carbon and hydrogen. Saturated fatty acid: –Each carbon in the chain is bonded to the other carbon atoms by a single bond. Unsaturated fatty acid: –A double or a triple bond is present in the chain.
Proteins Large complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Provide structure for tissues, contract muscle tissues, transport oxygen in the bloodstream, regulate reactions, and carry out cell metabolism. Enzyme: –Protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction.
Proteins Proteins are common in a large variety of sizes and 3-D shapes. The shape depends on the properties of the individual amino acids (ex. pH). Formed from amino acids. –20 common amino acids. –Covalent bond between two amino acids is called a peptide bond.
Nucleic Acids Complex molecules that store information in the form of a code. Made of smaller units called nucleotides. –Nucleotides are formed from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms arranged in three groups: a nitrogeneous base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate group Examples: –DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)