Presentation on theme: "2.3 Carbon-based Molecules Key Concept: Carbon-based molecules are the basis of life."— Presentation transcript:
2.3 Carbon-based Molecules Key Concept: Carbon-based molecules are the basis of life.
CHONPS! Cells are composed mostly of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms covalent bonds (strong bonds) with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures Straight chain Branched chain (form 3-D structures) Ring
Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds Carbon forms isomers Isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas Example: C 4 H 10 Only carbon has these characteristics Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties.
STOP & REVIEW What four properties of carbon make it so special and unique? 1.Carbon can form covalent bonds with up to 4 other atoms. (This allows it to form huge macromolecules) Macro = large 2.Carbon can have three shapes. (long chain, branch, or ring) 3.Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds. 4.Carbon can form isomers.
Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together. Monomers are the individual subunits. Polymers are made of many monomers.
Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. 1.Carbohydrates 2.Lipids 3.Proteins 4.Nucleic acids Christina Likes Puppy Noses
Carbohydrates Molecule Carbohydrates Has Carbon All of the time Has HydrogenAll of the time Has OxygenAll of the time Has Nitrogen - Has Phosphorus - STRUCTURE Monomer monosaccharide Polymerdisaccharide (dimer), polysaccharide Examples Monosaccharide: glucose (in your blood), fructose (fruit), galactose (milk) Disaccharide: sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk) Polysaccharide: starch (structure: long chain of glucose molecules) & cellulose (function: component of cell wall in plants), glycogen (function: energy storage in animals) Unique-Function: Provide a quick source of energy -Structure: Usually found as rings, and branched chains -Structure: 1:2:1 ratio of C:H:O
Lipids Molecule Lipids Has CarbonAll of the time Has HydrogenAll of the time Has OxygenAll of the time Has Nitrogen Some of the time Has PhosphorusSome of the time STRUCTURE Monomer glycerol & fatty acids (polar heads & fatty acid tails) Polymer triglycerides; phospholipids Examples-Function: Phospholipids make up all cell membranes (allow them to be fluid-like, more heat = more flexibility in fluid) -Fats, oils, cholesterol, steroids, waxes, phospholipids Unique -Nonpolar -Function: Long chains that are broken down to provide energy, long term storage of energy -Function: Used to make steroid hormones (control stress, estrogen, testosterone) -Structure: Fats and oils contain fatty acids bonded to glycerol
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Lipids Saturated fats: Structure: all bonds are full with hydrogens attached. Are usually solid at room temperature, and most come from animal products. Sometimes linked to circulatory (heart) disease Unsaturated fats: Have double bonds, and are not full. Are liquid at room temperature, and are usually referred to as oils.
Proteins Molecule Proteins Has Carbon All of the time Has HydrogenAll of the time Has OxygenAll of the time Has NitrogenAll of the time Has Phosphorus- STRUCTURE MonomerAmino acid (there are 20 different kinds) PolymerPolypeptide (protein) Examples Functions: Enzymes (speed up chemical reactions by decreasing activation energy, hemoglobin (transport protein in blood), collagen (structural protein part of connective tissue, which is used for movement) An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large Y-shape protein produced by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. Unique -Structure: 3D structure makes them active -Structure: Peptide bonds hold amino acids together -Structure: Have a side group (R) that makes each amino acid (and therefore protein) different, make polypeptide chains -Structure: Sometimes may contain sulfur
Different Shapes of a Protein http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lijQ3a8yUYQ
Nucleic acids Molecule Nucleic acids Has Carbon All of the time Has HydrogenAll of the time Has OxygenAll of the time Has NitrogenAll of the time Has PhosphorusAll of the time STRUCTURE Monomer Nucleotide (5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, & base) PolymerNucleic acid ExamplesDNA & RNA Unique - Order of the bases makes every living thing unique -Function: DNA stores genetic information in chains -Function: RNA builds proteins
STOP & REVIEW What are the 4 carbon based macromolecules? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids What is similar among the 4 carbon based macromolecules? They all have CHO in them What is unique between the 4 macromolecules? Their shapes are different, their functions are different What is a monomer Individual subunits (Ex: glucose) What is a polymer? A bunch of monomers together (Ex: Starch)
TED Ed Video http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-science-of-macaroni- salad-what-s-in-a-molecule-josh-kurz http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-science-of-macaroni- salad-what-s-in-a-molecule-josh-kurz
Building & Using Carbon-based Molecules Building (process): dehydration synthesis Removal of water to make a new product (water is a product) Turns monomers into polymers Using (process): hydrolysis Breaking apart by adding water (water is a reactant) Turns polymers into monomers
Dehydration Synthesis Two monomers need to join One monomer loses (-OH) and one loses (-H) The two monomers join and the (-OH) and (-H) join, forming H 2 O monomer-OH + monomer-H polymer + H 2 O
Hydrolysis A polymer needs to break apart (the carbs, proteins, and lipids we ingest are too big for us to use) Water breaks apart into (-OH) and (-H) and splits the polymer into monomers The (-OH) and (-H) bond to each monomer to make them stable molecules polymer + H 2 O monomer-OH + monomer-H