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Biochemistry Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry Review

2 Inorganics No Carbon

3 Water High heat capacity Polarity/Solvent properties
Chemical reactivity Cushioning

4 High heat capacity Absorbs and releases heat before its temperature changes Helps body get rid of excess heat Helps regulate body temperature by carrying heat through out body in the blood Helps prevent excessive changes in homeostasis due to external temperatures

5 Polarity/Solvent Properties
Universal solvent Salts, Acids, and Bases dissolve readily in water Transports nutrients, gases, and wastes throughout the body Molecules that lubricate the body use water as their base

6 Reactivity Reactant in metabolic reactions Hydrolysis
Adding water to larger molecule

7 Cushioning Acts to protect by filling spaces around organs Brain Fetus

8 Salts – Yum! Most common contain Calcium and Phosphorus
Ionic compounds Dissociation to form ions Ions important in nerve impulses and as part of the hemoglobin molecule Electrolytes – conduct electrical currant in solution Salts – Yum!

9 Acids and Bases Electrolytes Based on pH scale
pH of 7 is neutral, below is acidic, above is basic or alkaline Buffers Blood pH – 7.35 to 7.45 Depletion of oxygen to body if blood pH strays by just tenths Cells sensitive to change in body fluid pH Regulated by kidneys, lungs and buffers found through the body and tissue fluids

10 Organics Contains carbon

11 Carbohydrates Sugars and starches Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides Energy for necessary metabolic reactions Carbohydrates

12 Monosaccharides Most important in body Glucose, universal energy
Fructose and Galactose, broken down by cells to glucose Ribose and Deoxyribose, part of nucleic acids

13 Disaccharides Built with two monosaccharides Important disaccharides
Sucrose (glucose + fructose), cane sugar Lactose (glucose + galactose), found in milk Maltose (glucose + glucose), malt sugar Dehydration and Hydrolysis Dehydration builds disaccharides Hydrolysis breaks down disaccharides


15 Polysaccharides Complex branching chains of simple sugars
Excellent storage product Not sweet or are they? Important to the body, Starch and Glycogen Starch from plants for energy Glycogen stored energy in animal tissues (muscles and liver) Cellular respiration

16 Lipids Enter the body in Yummy things we eat! Most abundant in body
More Carbon and Hydrogen than oxygen Insoluble in water so must be dissolved by solvents – alcohol and acetone Types Neutral Fats Phospholipids Steroids

17 Neutral Fats Triglycerides Composed of fatty acids and glycerol
Saturated: solid animal fats, single bonds for carbons Unsaturated: plant oils, double or triple bonds Body’s most abundant and concentrated source of usable energy

18 Phospholipids Polar due to phosphorus “heads”
Found in cell membranes, selective permeability

19 Steroids Cholesterol Cell membranes and more concentrated in the brain
Raw material for vitamin D Sex hormones Bile Salts

20 Proteins 50% of the organic matter in the body
Built by Amino Acids connected by peptide bonds - Polypeptides Fibrous proteins are structural proteins Collagen; support Keratin; strength Globular proteins are functional proteins Enzymes (catalysts) Antibodies Hormones Transport proteins

21 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA Nucleotides Genetic information

22 Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP Usable form of energy for body cells Modified Nucleotide Energy captured in high energy bond of 3rd phosphate from breakdown of glucose

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