Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry Essentials of Human Anatomy & PhysiologySeventh EditionElaine N. MariebChapter 2 Basic ChemistrySlides 2.21 – 2.40
2 Patterns of Chemical Reactions Synthesis reaction (A+BAB)Atoms or molecules combineEnergy is absorbed for bond formationDecomposition reaction (ABA+B)Molecule is broken downChemical energy is releasedSlide 2.18
3 Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions Figure 2.9a, bSlide 2.19
4 Patterns of Chemical Reactions Exchange reaction (AB + CAC+B)Bonds are made and brokenSwitch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are madeSlide 2.20
5 Biochemistry: The Chemical Composition of Living Matter Organic compoundsContain carbonExample: C6H12O6 (glucose)Inorganic compoundsLack carbonUsually simplerExample: H2O (water)Slide 2.21
6 Important Inorganic Compounds WaterMost abundant inorganic compoundVital propertiesHigh heat capacityAbsorbs and releases large amounts of heat before the temp changes greatlyPolarity/solvent propertiesGreat solvent, because of polarity it can dissolve many substances.Slide 2.22
7 Important Inorganic Compounds Chemical reactivityHelps with hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactionsCushioningCerebrospinal fluid protects the brain and spinal cordSlide 2.22
8 Important Inorganic Compounds SaltsBecome ions in the presence of waterNa+Cl- (table salt) Ca+Cl- (in bones)Slide 2.23
9 Important Inorganic Compounds Characteristics of Acids↑H+ and ↓OH-Ex: gastric juice, lemon juice0 to 6 on pH scaleCharacteristics of Bases↓H+ and ↑OH-Blood, seawater, ammonia8 to 14 on pH scaleSlide 2.24
10 pH Measures relative concentration of hydrogen ions pH 7 = neutral pH below 7 = acidicpH above 7 = basicBuffersChemicals that can regulate pH changeFigure 2.11Slide 2.25
18 Organic CompoundsDehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis of a molecule of sucrose.If glucose is not immediately need for ATP synthesis then it will be converted to fats and stored.
19 Important Organic Compounds Lipids (aka- fats)Enter the body from- meats, egg yolks, milks, oils (animal or plant)In the body as neutral fats, phospholipids, and steroidsCarbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygenExample: Tristearin- C57 H110 O6Slide 2.29
20 Important Organic Compounds Most lipids are insoluble in waterWith the exception of phospholipids which are found in cell membranes.
21 Organic Compounds Neutral Fats or Triglycerides Composed of- 3 fatty acids and a glycerolResults in E-shaped moleculeGlycerol backbone is the same in all triglycerides, the fatty acids will differ.
22 Organic Compounds Saturated- carbons single bond Unsaturated- carbons double or triple bond
23 Organic CompoundsNeutral fats- yield large amounts of energy in the form of ATPFat deposits around organs and body help prevent heat loss and give cushioning.
24 PhospholipidsHydrophobic tails (non polar) which means that it hates waterHydrophilic head (polar) which means it like water.Cell membranes are made of a phospholipid bilayer.
27 Important Organic Compounds ProteinsMake up 50% of organic matter in the bodyHave varied functionsSlide 2.33a
28 Important Organic Compounds Amino Acids- the building blocks of proteinsHave amine group (base) nitrogenHave acid groupAmino Acids join together to form chains and create a functional protein.Slide 2.33b
30 Globular Proteins Spherical molecules They do things rather than just provide structureAlso called functional proteins3-D structure is held in place by hydrogen bondsFunction depends on active sites on the surface that interact chemically with other molecules
31 Enzymes Functional proteins that act as biological catalysts Increase the rate of chemical reactionsFigure 2.16
32 Enzymes Without enzymes biological reactions would not occur Examples- Hydrolase- adds waterOxidase- causes oxidationEnzyme names always end in –aseFigure 2.16
33 Important Organic Compounds Nucleic AcidsProvide blueprint of lifeComposed of C, O, H, N, PThe building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotidesNitrogen containing base varies5-carbon sugar is samePhosphate group is sameSlide 2.35
34 Important Organic Compounds There are 5 kinds of nucleotidesA = AdenineG = GuanineC = CytosineT = ThymineU = UracilDNA- deoxyribonucleic acidRNA- ribonucleic acidDNA has- A,T,C,G
35 Important Organic Compounds ATP- Adenosine triphosphateChemical energy used by all cellsEnergy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bondATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuelsATP ↔ ADP + P + EnergySlide 2.37