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Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry

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1 Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry Slides 2.21 – 2.40

2 Patterns of Chemical Reactions
Synthesis reaction (A+BAB) Atoms or molecules combine Energy is absorbed for bond formation Decomposition reaction (ABA+B) Molecule is broken down Chemical energy is released Slide 2.18

3 Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions
Figure 2.9a, b Slide 2.19

4 Patterns of Chemical Reactions
Exchange reaction (AB + CAC+B) Bonds are made and broken Switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made Slide 2.20

5 Biochemistry: The Chemical Composition of Living Matter
Organic compounds Contain carbon Example: C6H12O6 (glucose) Inorganic compounds Lack carbon Usually simpler Example: H2O (water) Slide 2.21

6 Important Inorganic Compounds
Water Most abundant inorganic compound Vital properties High heat capacity Absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before the temp changes greatly Polarity/solvent properties Great solvent, because of polarity it can dissolve many substances. Slide 2.22

7 Important Inorganic Compounds
Chemical reactivity Helps with hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions Cushioning Cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain and spinal cord Slide 2.22

8 Important Inorganic Compounds
Salts Become ions in the presence of water Na+Cl- (table salt) Ca+Cl- (in bones) Slide 2.23

9 Important Inorganic Compounds
Characteristics of Acids ↑H+ and ↓OH- Ex: gastric juice, lemon juice 0 to 6 on pH scale Characteristics of Bases ↓H+ and ↑OH- Blood, seawater, ammonia 8 to 14 on pH scale Slide 2.24

10 pH Measures relative concentration of hydrogen ions pH 7 = neutral
pH below 7 = acidic pH above 7 = basic Buffers Chemicals that can regulate pH change Figure 2.11 Slide 2.25

11 Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Include sugars and starches Classified according to size Monosaccharides – simple sugars Disaccharides – two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis Polysaccharides – long branching chains of linked simple sugars Slide 2.26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

12 Carbohydrates Figure 2.12a, b Slide 2.27
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

13 Carbohydrates Figure 2.12c Slide 2.28
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

14 Dehydration Synthesis
Monomers are built up into polymers. Water is taken away and the synthesis of molecules occurs

15 Dehydration Synthesis

16 Hydrolysis Polymers are broken down into monomers.
Water is added and the lysis of the polymer occurs.

17 Hydrolysis

18 Organic Compounds Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis of a molecule of sucrose. If glucose is not immediately need for ATP synthesis then it will be converted to fats and stored.

19 Important Organic Compounds
Lipids (aka- fats) Enter the body from- meats, egg yolks, milks, oils (animal or plant) In the body as neutral fats, phospholipids, and steroids Carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen Example: Tristearin- C57 H110 O6 Slide 2.29

20 Important Organic Compounds
Most lipids are insoluble in water With the exception of phospholipids which are found in cell membranes.

21 Organic Compounds Neutral Fats or Triglycerides
Composed of- 3 fatty acids and a glycerol Results in E-shaped molecule Glycerol backbone is the same in all triglycerides, the fatty acids will differ.

22 Organic Compounds Saturated- carbons single bond
Unsaturated- carbons double or triple bond

23 Organic Compounds Neutral fats- yield large amounts of energy in the form of ATP Fat deposits around organs and body help prevent heat loss and give cushioning.

24 Phospholipids Hydrophobic tails (non polar) which means that it hates water Hydrophilic head (polar) which means it like water. Cell membranes are made of a phospholipid bilayer.

25 Lipids Figure 2.14a, b Slide 2.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

26 Steroids and Cholesterol
Most important steroid is cholesterol It is used to form vitamin D, sex hormones, cortisol, and bile salts. Figure 2.14c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

27 Important Organic Compounds
Proteins Make up 50% of organic matter in the body Have varied functions Slide 2.33a

28 Important Organic Compounds
Amino Acids- the building blocks of proteins Have amine group (base) nitrogen Have acid group Amino Acids join together to form chains and create a functional protein. Slide 2.33b

29 Fibrous Proteins Strand-like, structural proteins
Examples: collagen, cartilage, keratin Slide 2.33b

30 Globular Proteins Spherical molecules
They do things rather than just provide structure Also called functional proteins 3-D structure is held in place by hydrogen bonds Function depends on active sites on the surface that interact chemically with other molecules

31 Enzymes Functional proteins that act as biological catalysts
Increase the rate of chemical reactions Figure 2.16

32 Enzymes Without enzymes biological reactions would not occur Examples-
Hydrolase- adds water Oxidase- causes oxidation Enzyme names always end in –ase Figure 2.16

33 Important Organic Compounds
Nucleic Acids Provide blueprint of life Composed of C, O, H, N, P The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides Nitrogen containing base varies 5-carbon sugar is same Phosphate group is same Slide 2.35

34 Important Organic Compounds
There are 5 kinds of nucleotides A = Adenine G = Guanine C = Cytosine T = Thymine U = Uracil DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid RNA- ribonucleic acid DNA has- A,T,C,G

35 Important Organic Compounds
ATP- Adenosine triphosphate Chemical energy used by all cells Energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels ATP ↔ ADP + P + Energy Slide 2.37

36 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Figure 2.18a Slide 2.38 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

37 How ATP Drives Cellular Work
Figure 2.19 Slide 2.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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