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The Building Blocks of Life

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Presentation on theme: "The Building Blocks of Life"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Building Blocks of Life
Organic Molecules Chapter 6

2 Organic Molecules All organisms are composed of organic molecules which contain carbon. Organic molecules are made of smaller units that bond to form larger molecules. These bonds result in a variety of important organic compounds that can be in the shape of straight chains, branched chains, and rings.

3 Organic Molecules Monomers: small molecule that can bond or chemically combine with other monomers Polymers: molecules made from repeating units of monomers

4 Organic Molecules Energy is stored in the bonds of organic molecules.
The amount of energy will vary from molecule to molecule, therefore not all organic molecules have the same amount of energy available for use. The energy stored in organic molecules determines its caloric value.

5 Organic Molecules Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Lipids Nucleic Acids

6 Proteins Made of small chains of amino acids.
Amino acids are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. There are 20 different amino acids. Proteins are made of different combinations of all 20 different amino acids. A protein’s primary structure is determined by the number and order of amino acids in a chain.

7 Proteins

8 Proteins Make up about 15% of total body mass
Involved in nearly every function of your body. Cells contain proteins that provide structural support, transport substances, communicate signals, speed up chemical reactions, and control cell growth.

9 Proteins As a source of energy, proteins have the same caloric value per gram as carbohydrates. Proteins can function as a source of energy only if there is a shortage of carbohydrates or lipids.

10 Proteins Protein structure is related to its function.
Structural Proteins: support Transport Proteins: transport substances Hormone Proteins: coordinate body activities Contractile Proteins: help control movement Enzymes: speed up chemical reactions

11 Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Sugars and starches. Basic carbohydrates are monosaccharides (simple sugars). Monosaccharides can be linked to form disaccharides which can then be linked to form polysaccharides. Ex) Glucose, Sucrose, Glycogen

12 Carbohydrates Glucose Sucrose Glycogen

13 Carbohydrates Main energy source for the cell.
The caloric value of carbohydrates is dependent on the number of carbon- hydrogen bonds. Cellulose in plants is used as a structural material.

14 Lipids Made mostly of carbon and hydrogen. Fats, oils, and waxes.
Composed of fatty acids, glycerol, and other components. Saturated: fatty acid tails contain single bonds between carbon atoms Unsaturated: fatty acid tails have at least one double bond between carbon atoms

15 Lipids

16 Lipids Triglycerides: fat if solid at room temperature and oil is liquid at room temperature Phospholipids: structure and function of cell membrane Steroids: cholesterol and hormones

17 Lipids Primary function is to store energy.
Important when carbohydrates are scarce. Fats contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates and proteins therefore they have a greater caloric value. Provide long-term energy storage, cushion vital organs, and insulation for the body. Major component of cell membranes.

18 Nucleic Acids Complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information. Made of smaller repeating subunits called nucleotides. Composed of carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, and hydrogen.

19 Nucleic Acids

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