Presentation on theme: ". Many democracies, including the United States, Britain, and France, remained strong despite the economic crisis caused by the Great Depression. However,"— Presentation transcript:
Many democracies, including the United States, Britain, and France, remained strong despite the economic crisis caused by the Great Depression. However, millions of people lost faith in democratic government. In response, they turned to an extreme system of government called fascism. Fascists promised to revive the economy, punish those responsible for hard times, and restore order and national pride. Their message attracted many people who felt frustrated and angered by the peace treaties that followed World War I and by the Great Depression…
Cultural: -censorship -secret police Social: -Supported by middle class, Industrialists, and military Economic: -Controlled by state Or State corporations Political: -nationalists -racist (Nazi) -one-party rule -Supreme leader Basic Principals: -authoritarianism -state more important Than individual -charismatic leader -action orientated
Italians upset over lack of terr. gains after WWI Rising inflation and unemployment created social unrest Italian people are looking for a strong leader to TAKE ACTION…
Newspaper editor and politician Founded fascist party in 1919 o Promises economic revival and military strength October 1922 30,000 fascists march to Rome demanding Mussolini be put in power Threats of violence and up rising…Mussolini takes power “legally”
Mussolini = Il Duce or “the leader” o Abolished democracy o Outlawed all political parties except fascism o Secret police captures opponents o Government censoring of radio stations and newspapers o Outlawed strikes o Controlled economy by making industrialists and large land owners members of the Fascist party
National Socialist German Workers’ Party: o “Nazi” for short o Goals were to overturn Treaty of Versailles and combat communism o Party adopts the “swastika” or hooked cross as their symbol Hitler’s Rise to Power: o Awarded two Iron Crosses for “bravery” in WWI o Failed attempt at being an artist in Vienna – blamed Jews for failure o Skilled organizer and orator quickly moves up the ranks in the Nazi party o Declared “der Fuhrer” – or the leader
Hitler was very impressed by Mussolini’s march on Rome he decided he will do the same on Munich o Attempt to seize power in Munich 1923 fails, results in Hitler being arrested. o Sentenced to 5 yrs in jail – serves less than 9 months o While in jail he writes “Mein Kampf” or My Struggle o Outlines his plans for Germany The “Aryan” of master race of the Germans needs to expel the non- Aryans from their borders o Also claims that German is over-crowded and needs more “lebensraum” or living space Will get it from Eastern Europe and Russia o No one pays him any attention until the Great Depression….
1932 Nazis are largest political party in Germany January 1933 President Paul von Hindenburg names Hitler Chancellor o Hitler comes to power legally Once in office Hitler has new elections, gets Nazi party members elected Hitler takes over gov’t and economy o Banns strikes, dissolved unions, and gave gov’t control over industry o Fear tactics to get complete submission from his people o “SS” created as secret police loyal only to Hitler – to kill opposition
Wanted to control ALL aspects of German life Turned newspapers, radio, literature, and film into Nazi propoganda Hitler Youth (boys) League of German Girls
Anti-Semitism major part of Nazi ideology o Jews less than 1% - become scapegoats for all Germanys problems o 1933 Nazi pass laws taking away most of Jews rights 1938 – “Night of the Broken Glass” o Nazi mobs attack Jews in their homes o Destroyed thousands of Jewish owned buildings o Start of the elimination of Jews from German life….