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Rise of Fascism Mussolini & Hitler.

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Presentation on theme: "Rise of Fascism Mussolini & Hitler."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rise of Fascism Mussolini & Hitler

2 Fascism As a result of the post-WWI economic & political problems, U.S., Britain, France, & Scandinavia maintained democratic gov’ts Others turned to various totalitarian rulers to strengthen their country and economy

3 What does fascism mean?

4 Fascism Fascism—new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to state & obedience to ruler What fascism promised Revive economies Punish those responsible for hard times Restore national pride Repair damage of Treaty of Versailles

5 Fascism Characteristics No clearly defined theory
Preached extreme nationalism Believed that nations must struggle Pledged loyalty to authoritarian leaders Leaders wore uniforms, had salutes, held rallies

6 Fascism Fascism & Communism Comparison
Both ruled by dictators w/ 1 party rule Both thought state was supreme Neither practiced democracy Fascist believed each class had its place; communists believed it should be a classless society Aristocrats v. workers Fascists were nationalists, communists were internationalists

7 Mussolini’s Rise to Power
Benito Mussolini’s Rise Fascism was fueled by disappointment over Treaty of Versailles Rising inflation & high unemployment contributed to social unrest Middle & upper classes feared a communist revolution Mussolini founded Fascist Party in 1919 Promised to revive economy, provide strong leadership Began attacking socialists & communists on streets October 1922…30,000 fascists marched on Rome to demand King Emmanuel III name Mussolini Prime Minister Fearing a civil war, King appointed him new head of gov’t

8 Mussolini’s Rise to Power
Il Duce’s Leadership (Mussolini) Abolished democracy & outlawed all parties but fascists Secret police jailed opponents Gov’t forced radios and publications to broadcast fascist doctrines Strengthened Italy’s economy Became model of fascism to come

9 Questions How did Mussolini maintain power in Italy?
How did Mussolini gain power in Italy? Why was Mussolini able to gain power in Italy?

10 Hitler Controls Germany
Hitler before Nazis Little known political leader born in Austria in 1889 High school drop-out, failed artist, WWI German soldier…won 2 Iron Crosses for Bravery Moved to Munich after war to join a right wing political group…later to become Nazis

11 Hitler Controls Germany
Hitler & the Nazis Overturn Treaty of Versailles and stop communism Munich group was known as National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi) Favored policies of middle class Adopted swastika, hooked cross Means “well-being” in Sanskrit…ancient good luck symbol Formed private militia called stormtroopers or “brownshirts” Hitler became der Fuhrer, the leader, of Nazi Party Tried to seize power in Munich, similar to Mussolini, in 1923 Failed & was arrested for treason, serving 9 months of a 5 year sentence

12 Brown Shirts

13 Hitler Controls Germany
Hitler & Nazis Wrote Mein Kampf, “My Struggle” in prison, mapping out his beliefs and goals for Germany Declared “Aryan”, blond-haired & blue eyed, the master race Non-Aryans were inferior sub-humans Was outraged by Treaty of Versailles, vowed to regain lands lost by it Declared that Germany was overcrowded, vowed to gain space by conquering E. Europe & W. Russia Revived Nazi Party in 1924 Depression takes hold w/ Germans turning to Hitler to gain control

14 Mein Kampf

15 Hitler Controls Germany
Hitler Becomes Chancellor Nazis had become largest political party by 1932 Conservatives believed he was easily controllable Asked President Paul von Hindenburg to name him Chancellor…gaining power legally Called for new parliamentary elections hoping to gain majority control Reichstag burns down a few days before…Nazis blamed Communists Fear of Communism gave Nazis majority Hitler had Enabling Act passed Granted him dictatorial powers for 4 years Hitler banned all other political parties, having opponents arrested Created SS, protection squad loyal to only Hitler Gestapo, secret police, shocked w/ brutal force into obedience

16 Gestapo

17 Hitler Controls Germany
Hitler takes control of Economy Bans labor unions, gov’t control of labor & business Put Germans to work building factories, highways, weapons, serving in military Decreased unemployment

18 Hitler Controls Germany
Der Fuhrer Hitler became totalitarian, controlling everything Used propaganda…radio, press literature, films Burned books Churches couldn’t criticize Children joined Hitler Youth programs Heavily influenced by Social Darwinism

19 Hitler Controls Germany
Campaign against Jews Anti-Semitism—hatred for Jews Jews represented less than 1% of population but were blamed for all of Germany’s ills Jew were stereotyped as the evil bankers causing all the economic problems Nuremburg Laws, 1933 Nazi laws depriving Jews of their rights, sparking violence Kristallnacht—Night of Broken Glass—Nov. 9, 1933, Nazi mobs attacked Jewish homes, stores, churches

20 Kristallnacht

21 Other Dictators Worldwide
Dictators arose in Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union, Spain, Austria World split into democracies & totalitarians

22 Questions Why did a movement like fascism, and leaders like Mussolini and Hitler, come to power during a period of crisis? Compare and contrast Hitler & Mussolini. Their rise to power, their way of governing, their control mechanisms, their economic reforms. Compare and contrast fascism & communism. Which countries maintained democracies? Lost?

23 Questions Who was Il Duce? Who was Der Fuhrer? What was Kristallnacht?
How did Hitler & Mussolini maintain power? What was Mein Kampf about?

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