2 FascismAs a result of the post-WWI economic & political problems, U.S., Britain, France, & Scandinavia maintained democratic gov’tsOthers turned to various totalitarian rulers to strengthen their country and economy
4 FascismFascism—new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to state & obedience to rulerWhat fascism promisedRevive economiesPunish those responsible for hard timesRestore national prideRepair damage of Treaty of Versailles
5 Fascism Characteristics No clearly defined theory Preached extreme nationalismBelieved that nations must strugglePledged loyalty to authoritarian leadersLeaders wore uniforms, had salutes, held rallies
6 Fascism Fascism & Communism Comparison Both ruled by dictators w/ 1 party ruleBoth thought state was supremeNeither practiced democracyFascist believed each class had its place; communists believed it should be a classless societyAristocrats v. workersFascists were nationalists, communists were internationalists
7 Mussolini’s Rise to Power Benito Mussolini’s RiseFascism was fueled by disappointment over Treaty of VersaillesRising inflation & high unemployment contributed to social unrestMiddle & upper classes feared a communist revolutionMussolini founded Fascist Party in 1919Promised to revive economy, provide strong leadershipBegan attacking socialists & communists on streetsOctober 1922…30,000 fascists marched on Rome to demand King Emmanuel III name Mussolini Prime MinisterFearing a civil war, King appointed him new head of gov’t
8 Mussolini’s Rise to Power Il Duce’s Leadership (Mussolini)Abolished democracy & outlawed all parties but fascistsSecret police jailed opponentsGov’t forced radios and publications to broadcast fascist doctrinesStrengthened Italy’s economyBecame model of fascism to come
9 Questions How did Mussolini maintain power in Italy? How did Mussolini gain power in Italy?Why was Mussolini able to gain power in Italy?
10 Hitler Controls Germany Hitler before NazisLittle known political leader born in Austria in 1889High school drop-out, failed artist, WWI German soldier…won 2 Iron Crosses for BraveryMoved to Munich after war to join a right wing political group…later to become Nazis
11 Hitler Controls Germany Hitler & the NazisOverturn Treaty of Versailles and stop communismMunich group was known as National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi)Favored policies of middle classAdopted swastika, hooked crossMeans “well-being” in Sanskrit…ancient good luck symbolFormed private militia called stormtroopers or “brownshirts”Hitler became der Fuhrer, the leader, of Nazi PartyTried to seize power in Munich, similar to Mussolini, in 1923Failed & was arrested for treason, serving 9 months of a 5 year sentence
13 Hitler Controls Germany Hitler & NazisWrote Mein Kampf, “My Struggle” in prison, mapping out his beliefs and goals for GermanyDeclared “Aryan”, blond-haired & blue eyed, the master raceNon-Aryans were inferior sub-humansWas outraged by Treaty of Versailles, vowed to regain lands lost by itDeclared that Germany was overcrowded, vowed to gain space by conquering E. Europe & W. RussiaRevived Nazi Party in 1924Depression takes hold w/ Germans turning to Hitler to gain control
15 Hitler Controls Germany Hitler Becomes ChancellorNazis had become largest political party by 1932Conservatives believed he was easily controllableAsked President Paul von Hindenburg to name him Chancellor…gaining power legallyCalled for new parliamentary elections hoping to gain majority controlReichstag burns down a few days before…Nazis blamed CommunistsFear of Communism gave Nazis majorityHitler had Enabling Act passedGranted him dictatorial powers for 4 yearsHitler banned all other political parties, having opponents arrestedCreated SS, protection squad loyal to only HitlerGestapo, secret police, shocked w/ brutal force into obedience
17 Hitler Controls Germany Hitler takes control of EconomyBans labor unions, gov’t control of labor & businessPut Germans to work building factories, highways, weapons, serving in militaryDecreased unemployment
18 Hitler Controls Germany Der FuhrerHitler became totalitarian, controlling everythingUsed propaganda…radio, press literature, filmsBurned booksChurches couldn’t criticizeChildren joined Hitler Youth programsHeavily influenced by Social Darwinism
19 Hitler Controls Germany Campaign against JewsAnti-Semitism—hatred for JewsJews represented less than 1% of population but were blamed for all of Germany’s illsJew were stereotyped as the evil bankers causing all the economic problemsNuremburg Laws, 1933Nazi laws depriving Jews of their rights, sparking violenceKristallnacht—Night of Broken Glass—Nov. 9, 1933, Nazi mobs attacked Jewish homes, stores, churches
21 Other Dictators Worldwide Dictators arose in Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union, Spain, AustriaWorld split into democracies & totalitarians
22 QuestionsWhy did a movement like fascism, and leaders like Mussolini and Hitler, come to power during a period of crisis?Compare and contrast Hitler & Mussolini. Their rise to power, their way of governing, their control mechanisms, their economic reforms.Compare and contrast fascism & communism.Which countries maintained democracies? Lost?
23 Questions Who was Il Duce? Who was Der Fuhrer? What was Kristallnacht? How did Hitler & Mussolini maintain power?What was Mein Kampf about?