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Chapter 15 / Section 3 Fascism Rises in Europe In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of totalitarian governments in Germany and Italy was largely due to the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 / Section 3 Fascism Rises in Europe In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of totalitarian governments in Germany and Italy was largely due to the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 15 / Section 3 Fascism Rises in Europe

3 In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of totalitarian governments in Germany and Italy was largely due to the results of severe economic and social problems that arose in Europe after World War II In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of totalitarian governments in Germany and Italy was largely due to the results of severe economic and social problems that arose in Europe after World War II During the Depression of the 1930’s millions of people around the world lost faith in the Democratic way of government. During the Depression of the 1930’s millions of people around the world lost faith in the Democratic way of government. In response, people turned to an extreme new form of government called Fascism In response, people turned to an extreme new form of government called Fascism

4 Fascist Beliefs and Policies Fascism- A political movement that promotes an extreme form of Nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule Fascism- A political movement that promotes an extreme form of Nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule

5 Fascist Beliefs and Policies Fascists promised to revive the economy, punish those responsible for hard times, and restore national pride. Fascists promised to revive the economy, punish those responsible for hard times, and restore national pride. Their message attracted many people that were frustrated and angered by the peace treaties after World War I and the Great Depression. Their message attracted many people that were frustrated and angered by the peace treaties after World War I and the Great Depression.

6 Fascist Beliefs and Policies Fascism had no clear theory Fascism had no clear theory However, most fascists shared these ideas: 1)Nationalism 2) Authoritarian Leadership 3) Uniforms of a certain color, special salutes,massive rallies However, most fascists shared these ideas: 1)Nationalism 2) Authoritarian Leadership 3) Uniforms of a certain color, special salutes,massive rallies

7 Fascism v. Communism In some ways Fascism was similar to Communism. In some ways Fascism was similar to Communism. Ruled by dictators, one party rule, denial of individual rights. Ruled by dictators, one party rule, denial of individual rights. In both, the state was supreme- totalitarian regime. In both, the state was supreme- totalitarian regime.

8 Mussolini comes to Power in Italy using nationalist message

9 Mussolini Comes to Power Fascism came to power in Italy due to the disappointment over the failure to claim large territorial gain s after WWI as the Paris Peace talks of 1919 denied them. Fascism came to power in Italy due to the disappointment over the failure to claim large territorial gain s after WWI as the Paris Peace talks of 1919 denied them. Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread doubt in the current democratic government, they wanted a leader who would take action Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread doubt in the current democratic government, they wanted a leader who would take action

10 The Rise of Mussolini Benito Mussolini – A newspaper editor and politician. Benito Mussolini – A newspaper editor and politician. Boldly promised to restore Italy’s economy in addition to strengthening it’s military Boldly promised to restore Italy’s economy in addition to strengthening it’s military Mussolini gained support because he was seen as a strong leader Mussolini gained support because he was seen as a strong leader In October 1922, after 30,000 fascists march on Rome, Mussolini takes control of Govt. In October 1922, after 30,000 fascists march on Rome, Mussolini takes control of Govt.

11 Mussolini as IL Duce’ Abolished Democracy. Abolished Democracy. Outlawed all political parties except The Fascist. Outlawed all political parties except The Fascist. Secret Police jailed his opponents. Secret Police jailed his opponents. Government censored radio and newspapers. Government censored radio and newspapers. Formed relationships between large industrialists and large landowners and The Fascist Party-Economy Control. Formed relationships between large industrialists and large landowners and The Fascist Party-Economy Control.

12 Hitler Takes Control in Germany Adolph Hitler- a little-known political leader in the mid- 1920’s. Adolph Hitler- a little-known political leader in the mid- 1920’s. Ex-WWI soldier who was awarded twice for bravery Ex-WWI soldier who was awarded twice for bravery.

13 The rise of the Nazis Settled in Munich Settled in Munich In 1919 joined a tiny right-wing political group whose agenda was to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. In 1919 joined a tiny right-wing political group whose agenda was to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. Renamed Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party, called Nazis for short Renamed Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party, called Nazis for short Policies of the group supported the middle and lower class Policies of the group supported the middle and lower class Swastika Swastika Private militia-Brown Shirts Private militia-Brown Shirts Nazism developed as the German for of Fascism but with racial dogma (belief) Nazism developed as the German for of Fascism but with racial dogma (belief)

14 Rise of the Nazis Nazi Party persuaded Germans to join the party by using propaganda, charismatic oratory, nationalism, and appealed to the economic needs of the middle and lower class Nazi Party persuaded Germans to join the party by using propaganda, charismatic oratory, nationalism, and appealed to the economic needs of the middle and lower class

15 Hitler Takes Control in Germany (cont’d) Hitler was a great speaker and organizer, helps him gain power. Hitler was a great speaker and organizer, helps him gain power. In jail Hitler writes, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) which tells of his goals for Germany. In jail Hitler writes, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) which tells of his goals for Germany. Declares lebensraum, or living space in Germany is needed. (Racism) Declares lebensraum, or living space in Germany is needed. (Racism)

16 Why Hitler?? Great depression ended nation’s post war recovery Great depression ended nation’s post war recovery American loans stopped, German economy collapsed. American loans stopped, German economy collapsed. Civil unrest broke out Civil unrest broke out Germans sought for security and strong leadership Germans sought for security and strong leadership

17 Hitler Takes Control in Germany (cont’d) Once elected by the Nazi party Hitler rises to Chancellor by Once elected by the Nazi party Hitler rises to Chancellor by From that point on Hitler finds ways to make himself more powerful. From that point on Hitler finds ways to make himself more powerful. However, during this time Hitler drops unemployment in the country from 6% to 1.5%. However, during this time Hitler drops unemployment in the country from 6% to 1.5%.

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19 Hitler Takes Control in Germany (cont’d) Hitler wasn’t just happy as Chancellor, he becomes the Fuher, SUPREME LEADER. Hitler wasn’t just happy as Chancellor, he becomes the Fuher, SUPREME LEADER. His plan is to dictate not only economic and political life, but ALL ASPECTS. His plan is to dictate not only economic and political life, but ALL ASPECTS. First thing he did was begin war with JEWS. First thing he did was begin war with JEWS.

20 One reason the Nazi programs and policies of the early 1930s appealed to many people in Germany because people were frustrated with their current economic and political situation One reason the Nazi programs and policies of the early 1930s appealed to many people in Germany because people were frustrated with their current economic and political situation

21 Attack on Jews-Kristallacht Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and on the streets and destroyed thousands of Jewish -0owned buildings. This rampage was called Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass), signaled the real start of theprocess of eliminating Jews from German life. Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and on the streets and destroyed thousands of Jewish -0owned buildings. This rampage was called Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass), signaled the real start of theprocess of eliminating Jews from German life.

22 Other Countries fall to Dictators Hungary –after a brief communist regime, fell to dictator Admiral Miklos Horthy Hungary –after a brief communist regime, fell to dictator Admiral Miklos Horthy Poland-Marshal Jozef Pilsudski seized power in 1926 Poland-Marshal Jozef Pilsudski seized power in 1926 Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania-kings turned to strong-man’s rule. Czechoslovakia was democratic. Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania-kings turned to strong-man’s rule. Czechoslovakia was democratic. Only Britain, France and Scandinavian countries were democratic nations. Only Britain, France and Scandinavian countries were democratic nations.

23 Democratic Vs. Totalitarian rule Nations split into two antagonistic camps.- democratic and totalitarian. Nations split into two antagonistic camps.- democratic and totalitarian. Fascists used military aggression to reach their goal. Fascists used military aggression to reach their goal.

24 Section 3 Assessment Page 480. Page 480. Answer questions 1 through 5 in your notebook. These are part of your notes. We will discuss your answers on Friday. Answer questions 1 through 5 in your notebook. These are part of your notes. We will discuss your answers on Friday.


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