2Fascism Rises in Europe In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of totalitarian governments in Germany and Italy was largely due to the results of severe economic and social problems that arose in Europe after World War IIDuring the Depression of the 1930’s millions of people around the world lost faith in the Democratic way of government.In response, people turned to an extreme new form of government called Fascism
3Fascist Beliefs and Policies Fascism- A political movement that promotes an extreme form of Nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule
4Fascist Beliefs and Policies Fascists promised to revive the economy, punish those responsible for hard times, and restore national pride.Their message attracted many people that were frustrated and angered by the peace treaties after World War I and the Great Depression.
5Fascist Beliefs and Policies Fascism had no clear theoryHowever, most fascists shared these ideas: 1)Nationalism 2) Authoritarian Leadership ) Uniforms of a certain color, special salutes,massive rallies
6Fascism v. Communism In some ways Fascism was similar to Communism. Ruled by dictators, one party rule, denial of individual rights.In both, the state was supreme- totalitarian regime.
7Mussolini comes to Power in Italy using nationalist message
8Mussolini Comes to Power Fascism came to power in Italy due to the disappointment over the failure to claim large territorial gain s after WWI as the Paris Peace talks of 1919 denied them.Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread doubt in the current democratic government, they wanted a leader who would take action
9The Rise of MussoliniBenito Mussolini – A newspaper editor and politician.Boldly promised to restore Italy’s economy in addition to strengthening it’s militaryMussolini gained support because he was seen as a strong leaderIn October 1922, after 30,000 fascists march on Rome, Mussolini takes control of Govt.
10Mussolini as IL Duce’ Abolished Democracy. Outlawed all political parties except The Fascist.Secret Police jailed his opponents.Government censored radio and newspapers.Formed relationships between large industrialists and large landowners and The Fascist Party-Economy Control.
11Hitler Takes Control in Germany Adolph Hitler- a little-known political leader in the mid- 1920’s.Ex-WWI soldier who was awarded twice for bravery.
12The rise of the Nazis Settled in Munich In 1919 joined a tiny right-wing political group whose agenda was to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism.Renamed Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party, called Nazis for shortPolicies of the group supported the middle and lower classSwastikaPrivate militia-Brown ShirtsNazism developed as the German for of Fascism but with racial dogma (belief)
13Rise of the NazisNazi Party persuaded Germans to join the party by using propaganda, charismatic oratory, nationalism, and appealed to the economic needs of the middle and lower class
14Hitler Takes Control in Germany (cont’d) Hitler was a great speaker and organizer, helps him gain power.In jail Hitler writes, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) which tells of his goals for Germany.Declares lebensraum, or living space in Germany is needed. (Racism)
15Why Hitler?? Great depression ended nation’s post war recovery American loans stopped, German economy collapsed.Civil unrest broke outGermans sought for security and strong leadership
16Hitler Takes Control in Germany (cont’d) Once elected by the Nazi party Hitler rises to Chancellor by 1933.From that point on Hitler finds ways to make himself more powerful.However, during this time Hitler drops unemployment in the country from 6% to 1.5%.
18Hitler Takes Control in Germany (cont’d) Hitler wasn’t just happy as Chancellor, he becomes the Fuher, SUPREME LEADER.His plan is to dictate not only economic and political life, but ALL ASPECTS.First thing he did was begin war with JEWS.
19One reason the Nazi programs and policies of the early 1930s appealed to many people in Germany because people were frustrated with their current economic and political situation
20Attack on Jews-Kristallacht Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and on the streets and destroyed thousands of Jewish -0owned buildings. This rampage was called Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass), signaled the real start of theprocess of eliminating Jews from German life.
21Other Countries fall to Dictators Hungary –after a brief communist regime, fell to dictator Admiral Miklos HorthyPoland-Marshal Jozef Pilsudski seized power in 1926Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania-kings turned to strong-man’s rule. Czechoslovakia was democratic.Only Britain, France and Scandinavian countries were democratic nations.
22Democratic Vs. Totalitarian rule Nations split into two antagonistic camps.-democratic and totalitarian.Fascists used military aggression to reach their goal.
23Section 3 Assessment Page 480. Answer questions 1 through 5 in your notebook. These are part of your notes. We will discuss your answers on Friday.