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“The Rise of Dictators in Europe”

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Presentation on theme: "“The Rise of Dictators in Europe”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “The Rise of Dictators in Europe”
Chapter Section 4 and 5

2 I.) Benito Mussolini Background:
1. socialist newspaper editor & nationalist politician 2. great orator (public speaker) 3. organizes new party in 1919: Fascist Party

3 Fascism: militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the
state and to its leader 1. opposed communism & democracy 2. control people through force & censorship 3. appealed to upper & middle class (keep existing social classes) 4. private property rights remain

4 Why did Fascism and the Fascist Party spread in Italy?
1. many frustrated over Treaty of Versailles 2. high inflation, unemployment, & social unrest 3. fear over spread of Communism 4. ineffective Italian government

5 Mussolini’s Appeals to the Italian people
1. promised to restore & protect the Italian economy 2. stressed Italian pride 3. pledged to return Italy to military glory of the Roman Empire

6 Black Shirt Army Rise to Power 1. Criticized Italian govt. & used Black Shirt Army (secret police) 2. Oct. 1922: 30,000 Fascists march on Rome Outcome: King Victor Emmanuel III appoints him “Premier of Italy” 3. Election of 1924: Fascists win control of parliament Outcome: Mussolini made “head of govt.” & called “IL Duce” (leader)

7 Mussolini Extends Fascist Control
1. abolish all political parties except Fascism 2. secret police 3. limited civil liberties 4. outlawed strikes & controlled unions

8 II.) Adolph Hitler Born in Austria in 1889
1. Failed at being an artist and fought in World War I (won Iron Cross) 2. Joined National Socialist German Workers Party in 1920 (Nazi Party)

9 Nazism: political system based on strong nationalism which believed in racial superiority and state control of industry 1. German version of Fascism 2. supported by people in middle and lower class 3. opposed Communism

10 Why did Nazism and the Nazi Party spread in Germany?
1. depression hits and German economy collapsed 2. factories stopped and banks closed 3. high unemployment (30% in 1932) 4. German people upset w/ Weimar Republic (German govt. created 1919)

11 Hitler’s Rise to Power:
1. chosen as Nazi Party leader (given the title “der Fuhrer”) led “Brownshirts” (Nazi militia) in attempt to seize power 3. arrested; given 5 years in prison; serves 9 months; released 1924 4. writes “Mein Kampf”: set forth beliefs and goals for Germany

12 5. By 1932: Nazi Party largest in Germany 6. Jan
5. By 1932: Nazi Party largest in Germany 6. Jan. 1933: Hitler named “Chancellor” by President Hindenburg Enabling Act: Hitler assumes absolute power a. Black Shirts (S.S.) & Gestapo (Secret Police) used against enemies 8. Called his rule “The Third Reich”

13 Hitler increases his control over Germany:
1. turns press, radio, literature, painting, film into propaganda tools 2. burned books and govt. controls churches 3. school children join “Hitler Youth” or “League of German Girls” 4. enemies placed in “concentration camps” & Jews into “Ghettos”

14 III.) Joseph Stalin

15 Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin fight for control of Soviet Union
Lenin dies in 1924 Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin fight for control of Soviet Union 1. Trotsky= worldwide communism revolution 2. Stalin= focus on Russian development

16 C. Stalin Seizes Power: 1. 1922- General Secretary of Communist Party
places his supporters in key positions Total control of

17 D. Stalin Seizes Control of the Economy
1. Command Economy: govt. makes all economic decisions a. Five Year Plan: Stalin’s economic plan for rapid industrial growth & for the strengthening of national defense b. Collective Farms: Stalin’s agricultural plan in which hundreds of families work on these farms & produce food for the state

18 Stalin’s Takes Control of Every Aspect of Life:
1. Secret Police: arrest & execute traitors a. Great Purge ( ): Stalin’s campaign to eliminate anyone who threatened his power 2. Indoctrination: govt. instruction to people about communism & Soviet beliefs 3. Propaganda: spread information to persuade communist & Soviet beliefs 4. Censorship: govt. controls press, radio, art, music 5. Persecution: discouraged religious worship & destroyed/seized church property

19 Soviet Government Under Stalin
new Soviet Constitution a. Supreme Soviet (parliament) b. Council of Ministers (executive & administrative power) c. Politburo (Political Bureau): had control over Soviet Union; Stalin in charge

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