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Chapter 8 Sentence Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Sentence Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Sentence Structure

2 Lesson 1:What is a Clause?
A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb.  Not this guy…

3 Independent Clauses There are two types of clauses.
Independent clauses: express a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Some students work in the food pantry.

4 Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses: do not express complete thoughts and cannot stand alone as a sentence. Most dependent clauses are introduced by words like because, when, if, while, and that.

5 Example Some students work in the food pantry because they care about helping hungry people. Students also make bag lunches that are distributed at a shelter.

6 Subordinate Clauses Dependent clauses are known as subordinate clauses. They cannot stand alone and are dependent on the main clause.

7 Lesson 2: Simple and Compound Sentences
A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses.

8 Simple Sentences Each of the following sentences only has one independent clause. Shawn tutors. Benita teaches young children acrobatics after school.

9 Compound Sentences Compound sentences contain two or more independent clauses and no dependent clauses.

10 Compound Sentences The clauses in a compound sentence must be closely related in thought. Shawn tutors, and he helps students learn math.

11 Joining Independent Clauses
Independent clauses must be joined by either a comma with a coordinating conjunction (,and) or a semi-colon. (;)

12 Examples of Compound Sentences
Some children have no books, and volunteers can hold book drives for them. Some children have no toys; volunteers can collect donated toys for them.

13 Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, for, nor, yet, so.

14 Be Careful! Don’t mistake a simple sentence with a compound predicate for a compound sentence. No punctuation should separate the parts of a compound predicate. The Newcomers’ Club wrote a clever script and then filmed it.

15 Lesson 3: Complex Sentences
A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

16 Dependent Clauses Most dependent clauses start with words like when, until, who, where, because, and that.

17 Dependent Clauses These clauses might tell when something happened, which person was involved, or where the event took place.

18 Examples of Complex Sentences
When we visited, Mrs. Brodsky shared her memories of working in a shipyard during World War II. Mr. Ruiz was a photographer until he was drafted. Mr. Liuzzo, who is a retired pilot, talked to us about his experiences in enemy territory, where he was a prisoner of war.

19 Complex Sentences Complex sentences can be used to clarify relationships between ideas.

20 Punctuating Complex Sentences (Add to notes)
If the dependent clause comes first, it should be FOLLOWED by a comma. If the dependent clause is at the end of the sentence, there will (probably) be no comma. If the dep. clause interrupts the main clause, there should be commas before and after the dep. clause.

21 Lesson 4: Kinds of Dependent Clauses
Adjective clauses: dependent clauses used as adjectives Modify a noun or a pronoun. Tell which one, what kind, or how many

22 Example of Adj. Clause Student volunteers read stories to the children who were in the daycare center.

23 Adjective Clauses Adjective clauses are usually introduced by relative pronouns. Who, whom, whose, that, which The story, which made them laugh, was about a monkey. Notice that a clause that begins with which is set off with commas.

24 Adverbial Dependent Clauses
Adverb clauses: dependent clauses used as adverbs Modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Tell where, when, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions.

25 Adverbial Dependent Clauses
Introduced by subordinating conjunctions. If, because, even though, than, so that, while, where, when, as if, since They were happy because they were going to the zoo. The zoo closed earlier than they expected.

26 Punctuating Adverbial Clauses
An adverb clause should be followed by a comma when it comes before an independent clause. When the field trip ended, the volunteers took the children back to the daycare center.

27 Punctuating Adverbial Clauses
If the adverb clause comes after the independent clause, a comma may or may not be required. The volunteers took the children back to the daycare center when the field trip ended.

28 Noun Clauses Noun clauses: dependent clauses used as nouns.
Can serve as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun.

29 Examples of Noun Clauses
What frustrates many physically challenged people is the problem of getting around. Volunteers know that physically challenged people do not want special treatment.

30 Noun Clauses Noun clauses are introduced by the following words:
That, how, when, where, whether, why, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever, which, whichever.

31 Noun Clause Test If you can substitute the words something or someone for a clause in a sentence, it is a noun clause.

32 Lesson 5: Compound-Complex Sentences
A compound –complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

33 Examples of Compound-Complex Sentences
When our school celebrates Earth Day, we sign up for environmental projects, and we try to complete them all in one day. Students have cleaned up the beaches, and they have planted flowers in the park so that the shore looks inviting to visitors.

34 Compound-Complex Sentences
Compound-complex sentences show complicated relationships between events and ideas.

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