Presentation on theme: "Holt Elements of Language"— Presentation transcript:
1 Holt Elements of Language Chapter 15: ClausesHolt Elements of Language
2 ClausesA clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject. A clause is used as a sentence or part of a sentence.Independent clauses express complete thoughts; subordinate clauses do not express complete thoughts.IC: Henry went to bedSC: when his paper was finished.Complete sentence: Henry went to bed when his paper was finished.
3 Independent ClausesIndependent (main) clauses express a complete thought and can stand on their own as sentences.Ellen wrapped the presents.Two independent clauses can be joined together using a comma and a coordinating conjunction:Ellen wrapped the presents, and she put a bow on each one.They can also be joined by a semicolon:Ellen wrapped the presents; she put a bow on each one.They can be joined by a semicolon, a conjunctive adverb, and a comma:Ellen wrapped the presents; then, she put a bow on each one.Two independent clauses can appear as separate sentences.Ellen wrapped the presents. She put a bow on each one.
4 Subordinate ClausesSubordinate (dependent) clauses do not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone in a sentence.Subordinate clauses must be joined to an independent clause.Subordinate clauses can appear anywhere in a sentence.Subordinate clauses often contain complements, modifiers, or both.Subordinate clauses are often introduced by:Subordinate clauses are similar to phrases: they can act as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns in a sentence.whenwhombecausewhichthatifuntil
5 Adjective ClausesAdjective clauses are subordinate clauses that modify nouns or pronouns. They tell “what kind” or “which one.”There are two types of adjective clauses:Restrictive/essential clauses are necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence and are not punctuated with commas.That sweater is the one that I want the least.Nonrestrictive/nonessential clauses give additional information that is not necessary in the sentence. They are set off by commas.Cockatoos, which are a type of bird, are popular family pets.
6 Adjective Clauses: Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns often introduce adjective clauses. They relate an adjective clause to the word(s) that it is modifying.Angela’s mom, who competed in professional diving, offered to teach swim lessons to my little sister.The professor called on the student whose paper expanded on the topic.Sometimes the relative pronoun is understood, and left out of the sentence.This is the book (that) she was talking about.Sometimes adjective clauses will be introduced by the relative adverbs when and where.After the picnic, we walked by the park where the festivals are held.WhoseWhichThatWhomWho
7 Adverb ClausesAdverb clauses are subordinate clauses that modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. They tell how, when, where, why, how much, to what extent, or under what condition a verb’s action occurs.Carly will practice piano as long as her schedule permits it.Introductory adverb clauses are indicated by commas.If you consider all of the options carefully, you’ll clearly see the correct choice.Before we left on vacation, Walt dropped the dog off at the kennel.Make sure that any comparisons made are complete!“I like dancing better than you” is very different from “I like dancing better than you like dancing.”
8 Adverb Clauses: Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions introduce adverb clauses and show the relationship between the adverb clause and the word(s) it modifies.Some subordinating conjunctions are also prepositions.afterbecausesincewhenalthoughbeforeso thatwheneveraseven thoughthanwhereas ififthoughwhereveras long asin order thatunlesswhetheras soon asonceuntilwhile
9 Noun ClausesNoun clauses are subordinate clauses that function as nouns.In a sentence, a noun clause can appear as a subject, a complement, or as an object of the preposition.Whoever guesses the answer first will win the competition. [subject]Andrea finally realized what had been bothering her. [direct object]Show whomever is driving the bus the directions. [indirect object]We talked about whether to stop for dinner or keep moving. [O.P]Noun clauses are typically introduced by:Sometimes, the word that introduces a noun clause is omitted; in that case, the introductory word is understood.Didn’t you know [that] the party is cancelled?thatwhenwhetherwhomwhatwheneverwhowhomeverwhateverwherewhoeverwhy
10 Sentence Structure Classification Sentences are classified in two ways:By purposeDeclarative: states a fact or opinionImperative: makes a command or requestInterrogative: asks a questionExclamatory: expresses strong emotionBy structure, based on the number and types of clauses in the sentenceSimpleCompoundComplexCompound-complex
11 Sentence Structure Classification Simple sentences contain one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.The sentence may have a compound subject, compound verb, and any number of phrases.Oliver and Anna enjoy their walk to school.Compound sentences contain two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses. They will always have two or more complete clauses (not just a compound predicate).There are many ways to create a compound sentence:Using a comma and coordinating conjunctionUsing a semicolonUsing a semicolon, a conjunctive adverb, and a commaMom said to go to bed, but she changed her mind.Mom said to go to bed; she changed her mind.Mom said to go to bed; however, she changed her mind.
12 Sentence Structure Classification Complex sentences contain one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.The sailboat that glided into the harbor was beautiful. [“that glided into the harbor” is a subordinate clause describing “sailboat”. The independent clause is “the sailboat was beautiful.”]When the submarine surfaced, the water hardly rippled. [“When the submarine surfaced” is a subordinate clause. “The water hardly rippled” is an independent clause.]Compound-complex sentences contain two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.After Laura spilled paint on the floor, she realized that she should have hired painters. [“After Laura spilled paint on the floor” is a subordinate clause. “That she should have hired painters” is a subordinate noun clause. “She realized” is an independent clause. The subordinate noun clause acts as the direct object of the independent clause, completing its meaning.]