2What is a Complex Sentence? A complex sentence contains both an independent and a dependent clause.A complex sentence may contain more than just two clauses.A complex sentence may be combined with a compound sentence to form a compound-complex sentence.
3Independent & Dependent Clauses A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.An independent clause has a subject and a verb and can stand alone because it expresses a complete thought.I studied for the test.A dependent clause has a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone because it does not express a complete thought. It “depends” on another clause to be complete.Although I was tired.
4Complex SentenceA complex sentence combines both an independent and dependent clause.Although I was tired, I studied for the test.I studied for the test although I was tired.
5Subordinating Conjunctions Many dependent clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction (also known as a dependent word)Subordinate means secondary, so subordinating conjunctions are words that introduce secondary ideas.e.g., because, since, when, while, although, even though, if, as, whereasSubordinating conjunctions create a relationship between clauses, so they must be used properly.
6Punctuating with Dependent Clauses & Subordinating Conjunctions When a dependent clause that begins with a subordinating conjunction falls at the beginning of the sentence, put a comma after the clause. (It acts as an introductory clause.)When it falls at the end, no comma is needed.Because I didn’t study, I didn’t pass the exam.I didn’t pass the exam because I didn’t study.
7What is a Relative Pronoun? A relative pronoun describes a noun or pronoun.Relative pronouns:who, whom, whomever, whose, which, thatRelative pronouns can be used to begin a relative clause, which is also “dependent” and can be used in a complex sentence.My uncle, who plays for the Houston Astros, is coming to visit this week.
8Who vs. Which vs. ThatUse who (whom, whomever, whose) to add information about a person or animal.My cat, who is 15-years old, likes to lay on the porch all day.Use that to add essential information about a thing or animal.The animal that I like best is the platypus.Use which to add non-essential information about a thing or animal.A platypus, which is my favorite animal, was recently added to one of the exhibits at the zoo.
9Punctuation with Relative Clauses Use commas to set off non-essential clauses.Clauses beginning with which should be non-essential.My computer, which is a laptop, crashed.Some clauses beginning with who are non-essential.My teacher, whom I like a lot, just won an award for Best Teacher.Do not use commas with essential clauses.Clauses beginning with that should be essential.The classes that I’m taking this semester are Reading and English.Some clauses beginning with who are essential.The tutor who is assigned to our class is very helpful.
10In Review….It is critical to know the difference between these three different types of words:Coordinating Conjunctions (aka FANBOYS)for, and, nor, but, or, yet, soConjunctive Adverbs (aka Transitional Words, also M…HOTT words)however, therefore, consequently, also, then, thus, otherwiseSubordinating Conjunctions (aka Dependent Words)because, although, since, while, when, unless, if, etc.
11Compound-Complex Sentences At least one dependent clause (incomplete thought)At least two independent clauses (complete thoughts)Example: Although he was hiding from me, I was able to see him at the corner, and I quickly ran to meet him.
12Quick Overview Example One: Simple: Nina likes to do well in school. Compound: Alex hates to study, but Nina likes to do well in school.Complex: Even though Alex hates to study, Nina likes to do well in school.Compound-Complex: Even though Alex hates to study, Nina likes to do well in school, and she tries to motivate Alex to do well also.Example Two:Simple: Jack ran over the bunny.Compound: Jack ran over the bunny, and his wife started to cry.Complex: Jack ran over the bunny before he realized it shot out into the street.Compound-Complex: Jack ran over the bunny before he realized it shot out into the street, and his wife started to cry.
14Multiple Choice Question 1 If you have a subordinate clause interrupting an independent clause, you…A) put a comma a comma at the front of the subordinate clause.B) need to put a comma between the subject and verb of the subordinate clause.C) put a comma at the start and the end of the subordinate clause.D) put a comma and conjunction at the end of the subordinate clause.
16Multiple Choice Question 2 Choose where the comma should go in this sentence.Jamie is going to the park when my family is going to be at the grocery store.A) Jamie, isB) at, theC) park, whenD) Correct as it is.
18Multiple Choice Question 3 What do you need to complete a compound sentence?A) Two subordinate clauses and a comma conjunction.B) Two independent clauses and a comma conjunctionC) One independent and subordinate clause, plus a commaD) One independent clause
20Multiple Choice Question 4 In this sentence, choose where the comma should go.Although my mother wanted me to go inside I did not want to be bored so I kicked the kickball.A) Although, my - so, IB) inside, I - bored, soC) mother, wanted - bored, soD) me, to - kicked, the
22Multiple Choice Question 5 What purpose does the conjunction in a compound sentence serve?A) It separates the dependent/subordinate clause and the independent clause.B) It combines two dependent/subordinate clauses.C) A conjunction combines two adjectives.D) A conjunction combines two independent clauses with a comma.
24Multiple Choice Question 6 Where is a comma needed in a compound-complex sentence?A) Between the dependent and independent clauses.B) Between the two independent clauses.C) Before a conjunction.D) All of the above.
26Multiple Choice Question 7 Choose the correct comma usage in these sentences.A) Mario, who likes to play video games, just got an Xbox 360.B) My mother, and my father got married in 1912.C) My sister loves to play the clarinet, that my grandfather got her.D) Lindsey, never plays outside while it is sunny.
28Multiple Choice Question 8 Which sentence doesn’t have correct comma usage?A) Bobby is going to the store, but he cannot get any games to play.B) I haven’t heard if Bob is going to perform in the play, so I guess he isn’t performing.C) Mrs. Black never gets mad, when I throw paper airplanes in her class.D) Mr. Gray, who loves reading, couldn’t find a book to read, so I gave him a teaching book with grammar tips.
30Multiple Choice Question 9 Choose the correct place to put a comma in a complex sentence.A) Put a comma between the dependent and independent clauses.B) Put a comma between the dependent clause and the conjunction.C) A comma is needed between the two independent clauses.D) Put a comma where there is a prepositional phrase.