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Groups and Social Interaction

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Presentation on theme: "Groups and Social Interaction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Groups and Social Interaction

2 Social Interaction Types 1. Exchange 2. Competition 3. Conflict
4. Cooperation 5. Accommodation

3 Exchange Definition: effort to receive a reward or a return for your actions Reciprocity: the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return. Exchange Theory: People are motivated by self-interest in their interactions with other people

4 Competition Definition: when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain. Foundation of capitalist and democratic society Positive motivator if the rules are followed Negative if it leads to psychological stress, a lack of cooperation, inequality, and even conflict

5 Conflict Definition: is the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person. 4 Sources 1. Wars 2. Disagreements within groups 3. Legal disputes 4. Clashes over ideology

6 Cooperation Definition: occurs when 2 or more people work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person Is the social process of how things get done

7 Accommodation Definition: is the state of balance between cooperation and conflict You give a little, so you can get a little Two basic forms: Compromise and Truce

8 What is a group? 4 Major Features 1. Has two or more people
2. There must be interaction among its members 3. Members of the group must have shared expectations 4. Members must share some sense of common identity

9 Group Characteristics
Size Smallest group – 2 people – called dyad Each person has a direct control of the group When groups have three people (triad) the group become independent of its members No one person can disband the group Decisions become easier

10 Group Characteristics
Time Can last any amount of time Does not have to be continuous Organization Formal: structure, goals, and activities are clearly defined Informal: no official structure or established rules of conduct

11 Group Types Types Primary Group Secondary Group Reference Group
In-Groups and Out-Groups

12 Primary Group Definition: a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis Entire self of the individual is taken into account Communication is deep and intense Structure is informal

13 Secondary Group Definition: a group where interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature Are casual and limited in involvement Importance in the group relies on their function A person can be easily replaced

14 Secondary Groups Generally organized around specific goals
Primary relationships can be formed in the secondary group Examples: Classroom, work, political party

15 Reference Groups Definition: Any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt. Choice of reference groups can have positive or negative effects on behavior Ex: Groups of friends and school clubs

16 In-groups and Out-groups
In-group: a group that a person belongs to and identifies with Out-group: any group that a person does not belong to or identifies with.

17 Social Networks Definition: The web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people Include both direct and indirect relationships Do not have clear boundaries and do not give rise to a common sense of identity

18 Group Functions Groups must define boundaries: often done through symbols, styles of dress, and hand gestures

19 Group Functions Leaders: people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others Instrumental Leaders: task-oriented Expressive Leaders: emotion-oriented

20 Group Functions Groups must set goals Groups must assign tasks
Groups need to control their members behavior

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