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 Groups and Social Interaction. Social Interaction  Types  1. Exchange  2. Competition  3. Conflict  4. Cooperation  5. Accommodation.

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Presentation on theme: " Groups and Social Interaction. Social Interaction  Types  1. Exchange  2. Competition  3. Conflict  4. Cooperation  5. Accommodation."— Presentation transcript:

1  Groups and Social Interaction

2 Social Interaction  Types  1. Exchange  2. Competition  3. Conflict  4. Cooperation  5. Accommodation

3 Exchange  Definition: effort to receive a reward or a return for your actions  Reciprocity: the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return.  Exchange Theory: People are motivated by self-interest in their interactions with other people

4 Competition  Definition: when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain.  Foundation of capitalist and democratic society  Positive motivator if the rules are followed  Negative if it leads to psychological stress, a lack of cooperation, inequality, and even conflict

5 Conflict  Definition: is the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person.  4 Sources  1. Wars  2. Disagreements within groups  3. Legal disputes  4. Clashes over ideology

6 Cooperation  Definition: occurs when 2 or more people work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person  Is the social process of how things get done

7 Accommodation  Definition: is the state of balance between cooperation and conflict  You give a little, so you can get a little  Two basic forms: Compromise and Truce

8 What is a group?  4 Major Features  1. Has two or more people  2. There must be interaction among its members  3. Members of the group must have shared expectations  4. Members must share some sense of common identity

9 Group Characteristics  Size  Smallest group – 2 people – called dyad  Each person has a direct control of the group  When groups have three people (triad) the group become independent of its members  No one person can disband the group  Decisions become easier

10 Group Characteristics  Time  Can last any amount of time  Does not have to be continuous  Organization  Formal: structure, goals, and activities are clearly defined  Informal: no official structure or established rules of conduct

11 Group Types  Types  Primary Group  Secondary Group  Reference Group  In-Groups and Out-Groups

12 Primary Group  Definition: a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis  Entire self of the individual is taken into account  Communication is deep and intense  Structure is informal

13 Secondary Group  Definition: a group where interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature  Are casual and limited in involvement  Importance in the group relies on their function  A person can be easily replaced

14 Secondary Groups  Generally organized around specific goals  Primary relationships can be formed in the secondary group  Examples: Classroom, work, political party

15 Reference Groups  Definition: Any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt.  Choice of reference groups can have positive or negative effects on behavior  Ex: Groups of friends and school clubs

16 In-groups and Out-groups  In-group: a group that a person belongs to and identifies with  Out-group: any group that a person does not belong to or identifies with.

17 Social Networks  Definition: The web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people  Include both direct and indirect relationships  Do not have clear boundaries and do not give rise to a common sense of identity

18 Group Functions  Groups must define boundaries: often done through symbols, styles of dress, and hand gestures

19 Group Functions  Leaders: people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others  Instrumental Leaders: task-oriented  Expressive Leaders: emotion-oriented

20 Group Functions  Groups must set goals  Groups must assign tasks  Groups need to control their members behavior

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