Presentation on theme: "Injuries Injuries are one of our nation’s most important health problems 5 leading causes of injury-related death are – – Motor Vehicle crashes – Falls."— Presentation transcript:
Injuries Injuries are one of our nation’s most important health problems 5 leading causes of injury-related death are – – Motor Vehicle crashes – Falls – Poisonings – Drowning – Choking Two types of injuries are – – Soft tissue – Musculoskeletal (muscles, bones, and joints)
Soft Tissue Injuries Types of wounds – Open Abrasions: Most common type of open wound. Scraping of the outer skin Lacerations: A cut in the skin and is commonly caused by a sharp object. Avulsions: A portion of the skin and sometimes other soft tissue is partially/completely torn away. Punctures: Usually caused by a pointed object, such as a nail, piercing the skin
Types of Wounds Continued Closed wound – The soft tissue damage occurs beneath the surface of the skin, leaving the outer layer intact. – A closed wound may bleed internally – Examples: Lease severe type = bruise or contusion
Signals of Internal Bleeding Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body, such as the abdomen Rapid, weak pulse Skin that feels cool or moist or looks pale Vomiting blood or coughing up blood Excessive thirst Becoming confused, faint, drowsy or unconscious
Care for closed wound Apply direct pressure Elevate the injured body part if it does not cause more pain Apply ice or a cold pack When applying ice or a chemical cold pack, place a gauze pad, towel or other cloth between the source of cold and the person’s skin. Leave the ice on for no more than 20 minutes. Remove for 20 and replace.
Care for an Open Wound Use a barrier between your hand and the wound. Apply direct pressure for a few minutes to control any bleeding Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. If possible, irrigate the wound for 5 minutes with clean running tap water. Apply triple antibiotic ointment or cream to a minor wound Cover the wound with a sterile dressing and a bandage, if it is still bleeding slightly or likely to come in contact with dirt/germs
Burns Burns are a special type of soft tissue injury Burns can damage one or more layers of skin and the layers of fat, muscle and bone beneath. Burns are caused by – – Thermal (heat) – Chemicals – Electricity – Radiation
Burn Classified by depth Superficial – 1 st degree Partial thickness – 2 nd degree Full thickness – 3 rd degree Critical burn requires medical attention. These burns can be considered life threatening, disfiguring, and disabling
Call 9-1-1 if… Trouble breathing Burns cover more than 1 body part or a large surface area. Suspected burns to the airway. (Note burns around the mouth or nose.) Burns to the head, neck, hands, feet or genitals. Has a full thickness burn and is younger than age 5 or older than age 60.
Thermal (heat) Remove the source of heat Cool the burn using cold running water. Cover the burn loosely with a sterile dressing
Chemical Brush off dry chemicals that cause burns using gloved hands and then flush the area with tap water (under pressure), being careful not to get the chemical on yourself or the person. If an eye is burned by a chemical, flush the affected eye. Make sure the affected eye is lower than the unaffected eye as you flush. If wet chemicals get on the skin, flush the affected area with large amounts of cool water.
Electrical Be sure the person is no longer in contact with the power source before making contact with the person Turn off the power at its source and care for any life- threatening conditions. In case of high-voltage electrocution, such as that caused by downed power lines, call 9-1-1 Electrocution can cause cardiac and breathing emergencies. Be prepared to give CPR or use an AED and care for shock and thermal burns Obtain medical help for all victims of electric shock to determine the extent of injuries.
Radiation Care for sunburns as you would any other burns. Cool the burn and protect the areas from further damage by keeping it out of the sun.
Closing Caring for wounds involves a few simple steps: – Control bleeding – Minimize the risk of infection – Always use barriers such as disposable gloves to avoid contact with blood – Use dressings and bandages that, when correctly applied, help control bleeding and minimize danger of infection – Take steps to minimize shock