2Present perfect tense Usage: The present perfect tense puts emphasis on the resultEx: She has written five letters.expresses an action that is still going on.Ex: School has not started yet.expresses an action that stopped recentlyEx: She has cooked dinner.expresses a finished action that has an influence on the presentEx: I have lost my key.expresses an action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speakingEx: I have never been to Australia.
3The Present Perfect Tense Connecting past and present We use this tense to show a connection between past and present situations.
4The Present Perfect Tense Like a bridge between the past and the present.PresentPastI arrived in Seattle in 2000.It is 2009.Present PerfectI have lived in Seattle for nine years.I have lived in Seattle since 2000.
5I have studied English since I came to the U.S.2000this morningyesterday
6To form the present perfect: HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLEQuestionStatementNegativeIhave (‘ve) goneYouWeTheyShehas(‘s) goneHeItHaveIgone?YouWeTheyHasSheHeitIhave not (haven’t) goneYouWeTheyShehas not (hasn’t) goneHeIt
7Questions Short Answer: Have they studied English since 2000? They have studied English since 2000.Have they studied English since 2000?Short Answer:Yes, they have.No, they haven’t (=have not).
8She has lived in Seattle since last year. Has she lived in Seattle since last year?Yes, she has.No, she hasn’t.
9How long have you owned this car? I have owned this car since 2002.I have owned this car for two years.
10The adverbs are frequently used in the present perfect: For: When talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present perfect with for + a period of time.Ex: I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty years. They have been married for six months.Since: When talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with since + a point in time.Ex: I have lived here since They have been married since June. We have been at this school since last year.adverbs (ever, never, already, yet, still) 'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the past participle.Ex: Has she ever met someone famous? I have never visited London. I’ve never been so sick.Already, yet and still: It can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence.
11The autumn has already arrived Present Perfect TenseThe autumn has already arrivedHow do you know?
12FORM: have / has + past participle Present Perfect TenseFORM: have / has + past participleAffirmative: I have seen the film before.She has seen the film before.Interrogative: Have you seen the film before?Has she seen the film before?Negative: They haven’t seen the film before.He hasn’t seen the film before.
13Present Perfect Tense Uses of the present perfect 1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, latelyWhy are they so happy?They have just won a prize so they are really pleased
14Present Perfect Tense2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaningI have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
15Present Perfect Tense3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time.I haven’t eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungryI haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty
16Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense: yesterday, last week, … ago etc, while we don’t use definite time expressions with the Present perfect tense.I have been to France three timesWhen did you go there last?I went there last Summer
17Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week.Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students.My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year.Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago.I’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him?
18Note the differenceHe has been to London. Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about London.He has been in London for two weeks. He is still in London.Where’s Peter? He has gone to London. He is in Italy or on his way to London.
19Helen hasn’t finished her work yet. Helen/finish /yet/her workHelen hasn’t finished her work yet.
20Ali/back/just/from Italy/come Ali has just come back from Italy.
21Kamal has never ridden a camel. Kamal /a camel/never/rideKamal has never ridden a camel.
22Kevin has just sold his house. Kevin /just/his house/sellKevin has just sold his house.
23Adam has been in hospital for a week. Adam/ in hospital/a week/beAdam has been in hospital for a week.
24Akram has already done his homework. Akram /homework/do/his/already/mathAkram has already done his homework.
25Has Pelin done her homework yet? Pelin/yet/homework/do/her?Has Pelin done her homework yet?
26Selim has already drunk his milk. Selim /already/his milk/drinkSelim has already drunk his milk.
27Omar /fall asleep/in class/just Omar has just fallen asleep in class.
28I’ve never caught a big fish. I/never/a big fish/catch/I’ve never caught a big fish.
29I haven’t flown a kite since I was 7 years old. I/not fly /I was 7 years old/a kiteI haven’t flown a kite since I was 7 years old.
41Present perfect continuous USAGE: The present perfect continuous tenseputs emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)Example: She has been writing for two hours.action that is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001.finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon.
42Form of present perfect continuous: PositiveNegativeQuestionI/we/you/theyI have been speaking.I have not been speaking.Have I been speaking?He/she/itHe has been speaking.He has not been speaking.Has he been speaking?Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive: all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
43Reminder:Verbs with stative meanings are not used in the progressive. The present perfect, NOT the present perfect continuous, is used with stative verbs to describe the duration of a state that began in the past and continue to the present.Ex: I have known Alice since he was a child.Incorrect: I have been knowing Alice since he was a child.
44Present perfect simple vs. Present perfect continuous FormHave/has + V-ed/ V3Have/has + been + V-ed/V3UsageThe present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.The present perfect progressive expresses an action that is still going on. It puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action.Adverbs frequently usedFor, since, already, ever, never, yet, still, etc.all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week, etc.ExampleI have written five letters.I have been playing football since 3 o’clock.
45ReminderWe can use both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous to describe an activity that started in the past and continues up to the present and possibly into the future.Ex: They have been studying English for three years.They’ve studied English for three years.We can use the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous with lately and recently.Ex: I’ve been working hard lately.I’ve done a lot of work lately.