2Language Objective:We will write complete sentences in the present perfect verb tense in three forms:declarative,negativeinterrogative.
3Application (Why?) We use the present perfect to show actions that: have recently ended,started in the past but may continue in the present,Happened in the past but the time is unknown or unimportant (relate an experience)
4has/have + past participle Parts of Speech:Verbshas/have + past participleSingular subject- hasPlural subject- have(I/you)
5Formulas & Examples Declarative + Present: Subject + has/have + past participle + finisher.Example:The neighboring countries have battled over the disputed territory for centuries.
6Negative - Present: Subject + has/have + not + past participle + finisher. Example: The President has not spoken to the public since last month.
7Have rescuers found the missing divers yet? Interrogative ?Past:Has/Have + subject + past participle + finisher?Example:Have rescuers found the missing divers yet?
8What have you done? Have you traveled to Mexico? Unfortunately, I have still not traveled to Mexico, but I am hoping to go soon.Has the teacher ever collected our assignment from yesterday?Yes, the teacher has already collected our assignment and handed it back.
9TOPIC 1 ExperienceYou can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.Examples:I have been to France. This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.I have been to France three times. You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.I have never been to France. This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.I think I have seen that movie before.He has never traveled by train.Joan has studied two foreign languages.A: Have you ever met him? B: No, I have not met him.
10TOPIC 2 Change Over TimeWe often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.Examples:You have grown since the last time I saw you.The government has become more interested in arts education.Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
11TOPIC 3 Accomplishments We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.Examples:Man has walked on the Moon.Our son has learned how to read.Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.Scientists have split the atom.
12TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.Examples:James has not finished his homework yet.Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.Bill has still not arrived.The rain hasn't stopped.
13TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.Examples:The army has attacked that city five times.I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.We have had many major problems while working on this project.She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.
14'Since' and 'For’ (Prepositions) We use 'since' with a fixed time in the past (2004, April 23rd, last year, two hours ago). The fixed time can be another action, indicated with the past simple (since I was at school, since I arrived):I've known Sam since 1992.I've liked chocolate since I was a child.She's been here since 2pm.We use 'for' with a period of time (2 hours, three years, six months):I've known Julie for ten years.I've been hungry for hours.She's had a cold for a week.
15Certain time adverbs ("time words") are especially common with the present perfect tense. The most common are probably ever, never, already, yet, still, and just.
16‘Already' and ‘Yet'Already is used in affirmative (positive) statements and questions. It shows an action or situation that happened earlier than expected:They've already left. Have they already left?She's already forgotten what you did. Has she already forgotten what you did?Yet is used in the same way as still. In present perfect tense it frequently occurs in negative statements and shows an action or situation that has lasted longer than expected. Yet's position in a sentence is different from still's, however:They haven't yet left. OR They haven't left yet. ORShe hasn't yet forgotten what you did. OR She hasn't forgotten what you did yet.
17‘Ever’ & ‘Never’Ever means "at any time." One of its uses is in questions:Have you ever seen a double rainbow?She hasn't ever fought with her boyfriend.Never means "not at any time." Its main use is in negative statements:They've never arrived late.She's never fought with her boyfriend.
18‘Still’ & ‘Just’Still is generally used in negative statements. It shows an action or situation that has lasted longer than expected:They still haven't left.She still hasn't ever fought with her boyfriend.Just is used to show an action or situation that finished only a short time before now:They've just left.She's just told me what you did!