2 Present Perfect Simple have / has + past participleI have seen the film before.She has seen the film before.Have you seen the film before?Has she seen the film before?They haven’t seen the film before.He hasn’t seen the film before.
3 Present Perfect Continuous have / has + been + present participleI have been working all the time .She has been working all the time.Have you been working all the time?Has he been working all the time?We haven’t been working all the time.He hasn’t been working all the time.
4 Recent eventsPresent Perfect Simple is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasise recentness (just, recently, lately).I’ve left my shopping bag behind.I’ve just broken my watch.
5 We can also describe events that have not happened. I haven’t found her phone number yet.The event may be connected with the present, because the result of the event is present. No definite time is given for the event.I’ve broken my arm, as you can see.I think I’ve eaten something bad. I don’t feel well.
6 Indefinite eventsPresent Perfect Simple – No definite time is given for the event.I’ve been to France three times.Compared with Past Simple – Events described using the Past Simple have definite time (yesterday, last week ...)I went to France last year.
7 The tense used can depend on the time expression. This is the first time I have eaten Japanese food.If we think of a definite place for an event, this may suggest a definite time.I left my shopping bag on the train.
8 The difference between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple The Present Perfect is used when the present result is important.The Past Simple is used for something that happened in the past and that has no direct link to the present.
9 We finished the house and left for a vacation. We have finished the house. Now we need a vacation.BUTWe finished the house and left for a vacation.I have met Ray a few times but I don’t like him.I met Ray a few times but I didn’t like him.
10 The Present Perfect cannot be used for something that happened at a specific time in the past. It cannot be used with words and phrases of past time which say (or ask) when something happened, e.g. yesterday, last week / month / year, …ago, at five o’clock, on Sunday, When …? …These words refer to events that happened and were completed in the past. Therefore we use them with the Past Simple.
11 Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week. Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students.My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year.Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago.I’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him?
12 Some words or phrases of time, e. g Some words or phrases of time, e.g. today, this morning / week / month / year, can be used with either the Present Perfect or the Past Simple. If the period is not finished at the time of speaking / writing, the Present Perfect is used.I haven’t seen Rachel this morning. Have you? – No, she hasn’t come yet. (It’s still morning.)I didn’t see Rachel this morning. Did you? – No, she didn’t come in at all. (It’s afternoon or evening.)
13 The Present Perfect can be used only for events or actions that are connected with the present. With events, people or actions that are known to be connected with the past (e.g. historical events, people who are dead), the Past Simple is used.Stephen King has written many books.Agatha Christie wrote detective stories.Michael Jackson has appeared all over the world.How many songs did the Beatles write?
14 Circle the correct tense I looked up at the sky and saw / have seen a very bright light.I lost / have lost the keys to my car. I don’t know what to do.I felt /have felt much better when I got to the mountains.It rained / has rained for two days before we could leave the hotel for the first time.
15 Answers I looked up at the sky and saw a very bright light. I have lost the keys to my car. I don’t know what to do.I felt much better when I got to the mountains.It rained for two days before we could leave the hotel for the first time.
16 I told / have told you the same thing over and over again I told / have told you the same thing over and over again. Why don’t you listen? I’ll tell you again, but please pay attention this time.It became /has become very hot in here suddenly. Is there something wrong with the air-conditioning?Haven’t you finished your homework yet? I finished / have finished mine hours ago.I waited /have waited for hours but nobody came.
17 AnswersI have told you the same thing over and over again. Why don’t you listen? I’ll tell you again, but please pay attention this time.It has become very hot in here suddenly. Is there something wrong with the air-conditioning?Haven’t you finished your homework yet? I finished mine hours ago.I waited for hours but nobody came.
18 I met / have met many interesting people since I came here last May. You smoked / have smoked ten cigarettes so far today. Don’t you think you should stop?Last week I invited / have invited a few friends over for dinner.After less than 10 minutes they realised / have realised that they were lost.
19 Answers I have met many interesting people since I came here last May. You have smoked ten cigarettes so far today. Don’t you think you should stop?Last week I invited a few friends over for dinner.After less than 10 minutes they realised that they were lost.
20 Extended or repeated events With verbs that describe states, the Present Perfect Simple describes a state which lasts up to the present.I’ve lived in this house for five years.The Present Perfect Continuous can also describe a state which lasts up to the present moment.I’ve been living in this house for five years.
21 There is little difference in meaning between simple and continuous in this case, or with How long questions. The verbs sit, lie, wait, stay prefer the Present Perfect Continuous.How long have you been waiting?The Present Perfect Simple can describe a habitual action in a period of time up to the present moment.I’ve never worn a tie to work, and I refuse to start now!
22 We use the Present Perfect Continuous for a continuous or repeated activity that began in the past and continues into the present. It emphasises the activity itself and its duration.Jack has been waiting for over an hour.I’ve been studying since 5 o’clock.
23 Contrasts between simple and continuous Not completed – Use of the Present Perfect Continuous can suggest that an action is not completed, or has recently finished.We’ve been walking for hours! Let’s have a rest.I’ve been digging the garden. That’s why I’m so dirty.
24 Completed – Use of the Present Perfect Simple can show that an action is complete. Given the number of actions suggests completion.I’ve written ten pages of my homework assignment!
25 Circle the correct tense We have been driving /drove / drive around for an hour and we are still lost. Let’s stop and ask somebody.I am / have been /was here since Tuesday and I still can’t find my way around.I have been reading / read /have read that book. Do you have another one to lend me?
26 AnswersWe have been driving around for an hour and we are still lost. Let’s stop and ask somebody.I have been here since Tuesday and I still can’t find my way around.I have read that book. Do you have another one to lend me?
27 I just came / have just come / have just been coming in I just came / have just come / have just been coming in. I’d like to rest for a while.How long have you been /were you /did you in Rome last year?I read / have read / have been reading this book for over a month. I’ll finish it soon.Who ate / has eaten / has been eating my chips? There are none left.
28 Answers I have just come in. I’d like to rest for a while. How long were you in Rome last year?I have been reading this book for over a month. I’ll finish it soon.Who has eaten my chips? There are none left.
29 Who ate /has eaten /has been eating my chips? Soon I’ll have none left. It rained / has rained /has been raining all day! Why can’t it stop!Have you been / Have you gone / Did you go to the concert in the park last week?I watched / have watched / have been watching this video ten times so far.
30 AnswersWho has been eating my chips? Soon I’ll have none left.It has been raining all day! Why can’t it stop!Did you go to the concert in the park last week?I have watched this video ten times so far.
31 Note the differenceHe has been to Italy. Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about Italy.He has been in Italy for two weeks. He is still in Italy.Where’s Peter? – He has gone to Italy. He is in Italy or on his way to Italy.