5Present Perfect Tense Uses of the present perfect 1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, latelyWhy are they so happy?They have just won a prize so they are really pleased
6Present Perfect Tense2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there isn’t a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaningI have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
7Present Perfect Tense3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time.I haven’t eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungryI haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty
8Present Perfect TenseFORM: have / has + past participle Affirmative: I have seen the film before. She has seen the film before. Interrogative: Have you seen the film before? Has she seen the film before? Negative: They haven’t seen the film before. He hasn’t seen the film before.
9Time Expressions already: Mum has already cooked lunch. just: I have just gone to bed.yet: Lilian hasn’t packed her bag yet.Has Lilian packed her bag yet?ever: Have you ever been to Japan?never: I have never been to Japan.since: She has been a singer since she was twenty.for: She has been a singer for ten years.so far: Karen has made three friends so far.recently/lately: I haven’t seen my cousins lately.
10Present Perfect TenseWe often use the present perfect tense with already and yet.Already: Something happened before now or earlier than expected.You can use already in positive sentences. Put already before the main verb.Yet: Until now.You use yet in negative sentences and questions only. Yet is put at the end of the statement.Example: A) Have you done your homework yet?B) No, I haven’t done it yet. / Yes, I’ve already done it.
11Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense: yesterday, last week, … ago etc, while we don’t use definite time expressions with the present perfect tense. I have been to France three times When did you go there last? I went there last summer.
12Past simple vs. present perfect Without definite time expressionI have been there three timesExpresses an action that happened in the past and its effect is going on till the present.I have lost my money.(till now I can’t find it)-With definite time expression in the pastI went to France last year.- Expresses an action that started and finished in the past.I lost my money yesterday.(may be I found it & may be not)
13Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week.Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students.My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year.Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago.I’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him?
14Have you ever listened to classical music? When did you hear it? Present Perfect TenseHave you ever listened to classical music? When did you hear it?
15Present Perfect TenseHave you ever walked along a riverside similar to the one in the photograph?When did you do it?
16Note the differenceHe has been to London. Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about London.Where’s Peter? He has gone to London. He is in London now or on his way to London.
17Note the differenceThey have gone to the cinema. (This means that they haven’t come back yet. They are still at the cinema.)She has been to London. (This means that she has visited London; she’s not there now. She has come back.)
18Exercises 1: Write sentences in present perfect 1. You / correct / my mistakes 2. You / practise / your English 3. She / tidy up / her room 4. The boss / sign / the letter 5. Mary / shut / the door 6. Tony /build / a house. 7. Anne / cross / the street at the traffic lights. 8. They / be / to Australia. 9.Rupert / call / this number. 10. Betty / spend / 200 Euros at the shopping mall.
19Exercises 1: Write sentences in present perfect 11. We / reach / our goal 12. Our team / lose / the match 13. She / underline / the word 14. They / not / discover / the treasure 15. Ron / not / talk / about the problem 16. You / knock / at the door 17. The teacher / mark / the tests 18. She / buy / a new computer 19. They / rescue / the girl 20. Brad / wear / a blue shirt
20Exercises 2:Write sentences in present perfect or past simple1. Mary / win / the lottery last year. 2. We / prepare / already / dinner. 3. James / find / your ring in the garden yesterday. 4. He / come / just / home. 5. They / buy / their car two years ago. 6. I / see / anyone yet. 7. Phil / go / to the cinema last night. 8. We / be / to the zoo so far. 9. She / arrive / yet. 10. Emily / visit / me last week.
21Exercises 2:Write sentences in present perfect or past simple11. / you / read / the book yet? 12. How many letters / they / write / so far? 13. When / he / tell / you that? 14. / you / be / at home last night? 15. How often / you / travel / abroad till now? 16. He / leave / just / his house. 17. We / build / a tree house last week. 18. Two years ago, Fiona / break / her leg. 19. I / wash / already / the dishes. 20. The other day, our cat / bring / home a mouse.