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Published byRudolf Brooks Modified over 7 years ago
Lessons 9 - 10
Present Perfect Tense Formation Present of to have (have, has) + past participle I have seen (I’ve seen) that film. Past participle: - regular verb + ed I have washed (I’ve washed) the dishes. - 3-rd column of the List of Irregular Verbs He has become (He’s become) a teacher.
Present Perfect Tense Questions and Negatives I have seen that film. Have I seen that film? I have not seen that film. She has written the letter. Has she written the letter? She has not written the letter.
Present Perfect Tense Verb “to be”: Singularplural 1I have beenWe have been 2You have been 3 He has beenThey have been She has been It has been
Present Perfect Tense Usage (1): The present perfect tense is used when we think about the past and the present together. Look, I have bought a new DVD. When we think only about the past, not the present, we use the past simple tense. I bought him a new DVD for birthday last weekend. The present perfect is not normally used with words for finished time. I saw Jim yesterday. I have seen Jim. I have seen Jim yesterday.
Present Perfect Tense Usage (2): The present perfect tense is often used to give news: to tell someone about new things that have happened: A plane has crashed at Heathrow Airport. My friend has bought a new car. When we first give news, we use th e present perfect. When we ask or want to give more past details, we change to the simple past.
Present Perfect Tense Usage (3): We often use the present perfect tense to say how much we have done up to now, and also to say how often things have happened up to now. I have done ten different jobs since last summer. Up to now, I have saved 230 KM. She has seen that film three times. We have often wanted to come to see you.
Present Perfect Tense Usage (4): We often use the present perfect tense to ask if things have happened up to now or to say that they have not happened up to now. In such sentences, we use ever and never. I have never seen that man. They have never visited that building. Have you ever been in Greece? Has he ever written to you?
Present Perfect Tense Usage (5): We often use the present perfect tense with: o already (= earlier than somebody expected) We have already started with our course. o yet (= up to now) (in questions and negatives) You have not met them yet. o just (= a short time ago) I have just read this book. Already and just come after have, and yet comes at the end of the sentence.
Present Perfect Tense Usage (6): We use the present perfect tense, not the present, to say how long something has continued up to now. To say how long we use since and for. Since = we give the beginning of time: I have been here since my childhood. For = we give the length of time: I have known her for ten years.
Past Perfect Tense Formation Past of to have (had) + past participle I had been there before 1992. Questions and negatives Had you been there before 1992. She had not been there before 1992.
Past Perfect Tense Usage (1): We use the past perfect tense when we are already talking about past and want to talk about an earlier past time. I did not recognize her, because she had cut her hair. Liz had never travelled by train before she went to Europe.
Past Perfect Tense Usage (2): We use the past perfect tense after when to show that something is completely finished. When I had finished my homework I started watching TV. I got a new mobile phone when I had passed the exam. We use the past perfect tense to say that something had happened before an event or a definite time in the past. It had happened before World War II. We had met those people before 2004.
Questions: Yes/No questions: Did he steal that? Are they superheroes? Wh - questions: Why did he do that? How old is she? Question tags: You are good, aren’t you? They are cute, aren’t they?
Wh - Questions (1): Question words: who, what, where, when, why, which, whose, whom, how Question formation: Wh - + yes/no question - related word He called my house yesterday morning. What did he call yesterday morning? When did he call my house?
Wh - Questions (2): When the question word who/what relates to subject, it just replaces it: He called my house yesterday morning. Who called my house yesterday morning? That thing is breaking my floor. What is breaking my floor? If it relates to object, it has a standars question form: I see him every day. Who do you see every day?
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